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SUBJECT – Rajasthan Geography

TOPIC -Metallic Minerals and Non–Metallic Minerals – Types, distribution, and industrial uses | Conventional and Non-conventional Energy Resources | Demographic characteristics and Major Tribes | Wildlife and Biodiversity: Threats and Conversation | Concept of UNESCO Geo-parks and Geo-heritage sites: Potential in Rajasthan | Major Environmental Issues

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Q1 Write the names of any four Geo heritage sites in Rajasthan. 2M


Draft The Geo-heritage Sites and Geo-relics Bill defines Geoheritage sites as places containing important geological geo-relics and features such as stratigraphic type sections, geological structures, and unique landforms including caves and natural rock-sculptures of national and international significance..

The Geo-heritage Sites encompass significant elements which possess educational, scientific, aesthetic and cultural value.

Four Geo heritage sites in Rajasthan are- 

Gossan in Rajpura-Dariba Mineralised beltUdaipur
Stromatolite ParkNear Bhojunda, Chittorgarh
Akal Fossil Wood ParkJaisalmer
Kishangarh Nepheline SyeniteAjmer

Q2 Discuss the distribution of non metallic minerals in rajasthan. 5M


The basic minerals are not separated from the ores of non-metallic minerals by chemical process. These are used in their natural form only.


  • Building stone 
    • Marble:
      • Rajasthan has a monopoly in marble production.
      • Different colored marble stones are found across the state: green in Udaipur, black in Bhaislana, pink in Jalore and Banswara, yellow in Jaisalmer, white in Makrana, and rainbow-colored marble in Pali.
      • The state possesses a reserve of 1100 million tonnes of high-quality marble, with major production centers in Makrana, Rajsamand, Udaipur, and Kishangarh.
    • Limestone : 10 % of india’s reserve ⇒ cement grade (Chittor , bundi), chemical grade (Jodhpur), steel grade(Jaisalmer)
    • Sand stone:  white- brown in jodhpur, white in karauli-daang region, kota stone in kota, Bundi etch
    • Granite: jalore, pali, sirohi, udaipur etc
  • Gypsum:
    • Rajasthan holds the maximum quantity of gypsum in India, mined in four major areas: Nagaur Belt (Goth-Manglod, Bhadwasi, Mangol), Churu-Bikaner Belt (Jamsar, Lunkaransar, Taranagar), Jaisalmer-Barmer Belt (Mohangarh, 
    • Hamirwali), and Pali-Jodhpur Belt (Falsund, Manglod).
  • Asbestos: Khairwada, rishabhdeo (Udaipur); deval, Piparda (Dunagrpur)
  • Feldspar : 60 % of india. 96% of rajasthan in Markeda, Ajmer 
  • Fluorspar: mando ki pal (Dungarpur)
  •  Mica: three belt : 1) Jaipur – Tonk Belt (Barla, Mankhand, Banjari, Lakshmi); 2) Bhilwara- udaipur belt : DantaBhunas,3) other region : torawati (sikar), ajmer etc
  • Rock Phosphate : udaipur (jhamar kotda, dafan kotda), Banswara (salopet), Jaisalmer (Birmania)
  • Dolomite : Banswara(vitthal dev, tripura sundari), udaipur, rajsamand (haldighati, nathdwara)
  • Silica sand : Bundi (barodia), jaipur, sawai madhopur, bharatpur, barmer
  • Clay minerals : china clay, ball clay, fire clay (bikaner), Bleaching clay (barmer)
  • Precious stone : emerald(rajsamand belt – kalaguman, tikki, gogunda ); Garnet (rajmahal- tonk, ajmer- sarwad) 
  • Other: calcite, bentonite, Pyrites (sikar), rock salt (deedwana, lunkasar, pachpadra lake), barytes, magnesite.

Q3 Describe the habitat, economy and society of Bhil tribe in Rajasthan. 10M


Bhils rank second in Rajasthan’s tribal population, concentrated mainly in Banswara, Dungarpur, and Udaipur districts. They are among India’s oldest tribes, speaking Bhili and Vagri dialects. Socially patrilineal, they are primarily farmers and renowned archers traditionally.

Habitat and Housing

  • Uneven and Forested Lands: Bhils typically inhabit uneven and forested lands, reflecting their close connection to nature.
  • Traditional Housing: Their houses are constructed using bamboo and wood, materials readily available in their surroundings.
  • Regional Distinctions:
  • Paalvi Bhils:Bhils residing on higher hills are known as ‘Paalvi.
  • Vagri Bhils: Bhils residing in the plains are referred to as ‘Vagri’.

Social Life 

  • Patrilineal Gotras: Bhils have several patrilineal gotras known as ‘Atak’.
  • Marriage Practices: Various types → Mor Bandhiya marriage, marriage by capture, child marriage, marriage by exchange, marriage by service, and marriage by purchase.
  • Family Structure: In comparison to joint families, nuclear families are more common among the Bhils.
  • Village Structure: The head of the village is referred to as ‘Gameti’. Smaller villages are called “Fala” and larger ones are called ‘Paal’.
  • Cultural Practices:
    • Dances: Gawri and Ghoomar are the main dances of the Bhil community.
    • Fair and Festivals:
      • The worship of goddess Parvati, known as the ‘Gavri’ festival in the month of Shrawan, is a significant festival among the Bhils. 
      • Beneshwar Fair: The famous Beneshwar fair of the Bhil community takes place annually on the full moon day (Poornima) of the month of Maagh at the confluence of the rivers Mahi, Som, and Jakham.
  • Traditional Attire and Ornaments: Bhil males wear a kameez or ‘Angrakhi’, tight-fitted dhoti called ‘hepada’, and a turban called ‘Potya’. Females wear ghagra, lugdi, and choli as their traditional outfits. Ornaments made up of metals like silver, brass, and nickel are common among both males and females, along with tattoo making.
  • Religious Practices: Besides Hindu gods and goddesses, the Bhils also worship local deities such as Dharal, Birsa Munda, Kalaji Goraji, Mataji, Govind Guru, and Lasodia Maharaj.

Economic Status of Bhils

  • Nomadic Lifestyle: Traditionally, the Bhils have been a very poor tribe, often leading a nomadic lifestyle.
  • Transition to Farming and Animal husbandry: Many Bhils have now transitioned to farming activities in various places.
    • Farming on hill slopes is known as ‘Chimata’, while farming in plain areas is called ‘Dajiya’.
    • In addition to farming, Bhils also engage in animal rearing as a part of their economic activities.
  • Forest-based Livelihood: Fishing, hunting, and collecting forest products, particularly by children and females, form an integral part of their economic system.
    • The Mahua tree holds significant importance among the Bhils, likely due to its economic value as well as cultural significance.

Transition to Wage Labor: Presently, some Bhils have also started working as wage laborers in nearby cities and towns, indicating a shift in their economic activities.

Q4 Translate the following sentences into English :   
1.ऐसा इसलिए लगता है क्योंकि तुम दस महीनों का कोर्स केवल एक महीने में तैयार कर रही हो I
2.मौजूदा फीफा विश्व कप में युवा खिलाड़ियों ने शानदार प्रदर्शन किया।
3.जापान ने चीन को उत्तर कोरिया से खतरा मानते हुए अपनी सुरक्षा रणनीति को नौ साल बाद अपडेट किया है।
4.मैं प्रदेशवासियों की खुशहाली, सुख-समृद्धि, स्वस्थ जीवन और चहुंमुखी विकास की कामना करता हूं।
5.गरीब का परिवार उजड़ता है, बच्चे पैसे के अभाव में स्कूल नहीं जाते, घर का वातावरण दूषित होता है और शांति गायब हो जाती है। 


1.That looks so because you are preparing the ten months course in just one month. 

2.In the current FIFA World Cup, young players have performed brilliantly.

3.Japan has updated its security strategy after nine years considering China as a threat 

4.I wish for the happiness, prosperity, healthy life and all-round development of the people of the state.

5.The family of the poor gets ruined, the children do not go to school because of lack of money, the atmosphere of the house gets polluted and the peace disappears.

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