4 May Ras Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – General Science

Topic – Organic farming, Biotechnology and its applications.

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Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What is Genetically Engineered Insulin.?(2M)


Genetically engineered insulin, also referred to as recombinant DNA insulin or synthetic insulin, is insulin generated via genetic engineering methodologies. Unlike the conventional approach of extracting insulin from animal sources like pigs or cows, genetically engineered insulin is synthesized utilizing modified bacteria or yeast capable of producing human insulin.

The procedure entails the insertion of the human insulin gene into the DNA of bacteria or yeast cells. Subsequently, these genetically modified organisms (GMOs) undergo replication, generating insulin that mirrors the molecular structure of the insulin naturally produced within the human body.

Q2 Write down the applications of biotechnology in the field of agriculture.(5M)


Application in Agriculture:

  • Tissue Culture: Cultivating whole plants from small plant parts in a controlled environment. Micropropagation is used to regenerate disease-free plantlets of bananas from tissues of healthy banana plants.
  • Somatic Hybridization: Fusing protoplasts of different plant varieties to create hybrid plants. Used for producing new plant hybrids with desired characteristics.
  • Genetically Modified Crops: with desirable traits such as pest resistance, disease resistance, drought tolerance, and increased nutritional value.
    • Bt Cotton: Engineered with genes like cryIAc and cryIIAb from Bacillus thuringiensis, producing insecticidal proteins that target specific pests. 
    • Golden Rice: Genetically modified to produce beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, addressing vitamin A deficiency in populations relying heavily on rice as a staple food.
    • GM-Mustard:GEAC has approved the environmental release of Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11 (DMH-11).
    • ‘Protato’: A genetically modified potato variety enriched with proteins, awaiting final approval for consumption.
  • Pest Resistant Plants: RNA interference (RNAi) is used to silence nematode-specific genes in host plants, preventing infestation.

Q3 How is organic farming different from traditional farming? Explain the major components of organic farming and briefly discuss its scope in Rajasthan.(10M)


Organic farming is an agricultural system that uses fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure. It emphasizes sustainability, biodiversity, and minimal use of synthetic inputs. 

Component of Organic farming : 

  • Crop Rotation: Rotating crops to maintain soil fertility and reduce pests and diseases.
  • Crop Residue: Using leftover plant material as feed for animals and for recycling nutrients.
  • Organic Manure: Derived from biological sources to enhance crop growth, protection, and soil productivity.
    • Bulky Organic Manure: Includes Farm Yard Manure (FYM), Compost Manure, Green Manure, etc.
    • Concentrated Organic Manure: Such as Oilcakes, blood meal, fishmeal, meat meal, etc.
  • Waste as Manure: Utilizing industrial waste and properly decomposed municipal and sewage waste.
  • Supplementary Nutrient Sources: Powdered rock phosphate, green sand, gypsum, dolomite, etc.
  • Bio-fertilizers: Cultures of microorganisms for nitrogen fixation when inoculated into suitable crops.
  • Bio-Pesticides: Natural plant products and organisms to control pests.
  • Vermicomposting: Organic manure produced by earthworm activity.
  • Other Pest Control Methods: Manipulation of crop rotations, pest-resistant varieties, strip cropping, etc.
  • Weed Management: Various methods including tillage, irrigation timings, hand weeding, mulching, etc

Scope in rajasthan: 

  • The Rajasthan government has set an ambitious target of converting about 1.20 lakh hectares of agricultural land into organic farming areas.
  • Rajasthan Organic Farming Mission, with an outlay of Rs 600 crore, aims to benefit around 4 lakh farmers. It aims to provide organic seeds, bio- fertilisers and pesticides to farmers
  • To boost organic farming in the state, the Rajasthan government has decided to go to the grassroots to encourage it, by setting up district-level certification units and testing labs.
  • Rajasthan Organic Farming Policy 2017:
    • Arid & semi-arid regions of State have low consumption of pesticides and fertilizers, which makes it easy to go for organic conversion without significant yield loss during conversion period
    • the districts having potential for organic production are Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Pali, Sirohi, Dungarpur, Nagaur and Jhunjhunu.

Vision → Establishment of brand “Organic Rajasthan”

Q4 निम्नाकिंत अनुच्छेद का हिन्दी में अनुवाद कीजिएः

Regions with the most blocks with critical groundwater levels are in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh, where, despite replenishable systems, indiscriminate groundwater withdrawal has depressed the water table. There is no central law governing the use of groundwater and various States have their own laws on regulating its extraction that are deployed in a perfunctory manner. 


पंजाब, हरियाणा, दिल्ली और पश्चिमी उत्तर प्रदेश में गंभीर भूजल स्तर वाले सबसे अधिक ब्लॉक हैं, जहां पुनःपूर्ति योग्य प्रणालियों के बावजूद अंधाधुंध भूजल निकासी ने जल स्तर को नीचे गिरा दिया है। भूजल के उपयोग को नियंत्रित करने वाला कोई केंद्रीय कानून नहीं है और इसके निष्कर्षण को विनियमित करने के लिए विभिन्न राज्यों के अपने कानून हैं जो एक लापरवाह तरीके से लागू किए जाते हैं।

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