3 May Ras Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – General Science

Topic – Plant parts and their functions, Plant nutrition, Plant growth regulators, Sexual and asexual reproduction in plants, Important medicinal plants with special reference to Rajasthan 

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Q1 Write two examples of root modification.(2M)


Root modification refers to structural changes or adaptations in plant roots that enable them to perform specialized functions beyond their typical roles (in anchoring the plant and absorbing water and nutrients from the soil)


  1. For storage of food : tap root in carrot, adventitious root of sweet potato
  2. For support: Prop root in banyan tree, still root in maize and sugarcane
  3. For respiration: Pneumatophores in mangrove 

Q2 Discuss the different methods of asexual reproduction utilized by plants.(5M)


In asexual reproduction new plants are obtained without production of seeds.(Single Parents)

  1. Vegetative Propagation: New plants are produced from vegetative parts i.e. roots, stems, leaves and buds. It may be natural or artificial.
Natural Vegetative Propagation:
Roots: Guava, Sweet potato.
Leaves : Bryophyllum (buds in margins of leaves )
Tubers: Potatoes (eyes).
Stem :  Onion, Garlic and tulip
Roots : sweet Potato and Dahlia
Artificial Vegetative Propagation:
Cutting: Lemon, Rose, Sansevieria.
Grafting: Mango, Guava.
Layering: Jasmine, Tomatoes.
Tissue Culture: Bananas, Orchids.
  1. Spore Formation: Specialized reproductive structures called spores are produced and released into the environment by fungi, mosses, ferns, and other organisms.These spores travel long distances and, under suitable conditions, germinate into new individuals, facilitating habitat colonization
  2. Fragmentation: Organisms break into fragments, each growing into a new individual. Algae (Spirogyra) quickly multiply this way, spreading in ponds and forming green patches. 
  3. Budding: Budding involves the formation of small outgrowths, called buds, on the parent plant. These buds develop into new individuals before detaching. Examples include yeast, Hydra, and certain plants like Bryophyllum.

Q3 How do important medicinal plants in Rajasthan contribute to traditional healthcare practices, and what are their therapeutic applications?(10M)


Rajasthan, with its diverse landscape and climate, hosts a variety of medicinal plants that have been traditionally used for various health purposes. Here are some important medicinal plants found in Rajasthan:

  1. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): Known for its adaptogenic properties, Ashwagandha is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine to reduce stress, improve cognitive function, and boost overall vitality.
  2. Isabgol (Psyllium Husk): Isabgol is beneficial in diarrhoea, constipation and obesity. Jalore and barmer are the main producing areas of isabgol.
  3. Senna (Cassia angustifolia): Also known as Sonamukhi, Senna is a natural laxative commonly used to relieve constipation and promote bowel movement.
  4. Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis): Aloe Vera, with its soothing and healing properties, is used in various skincare products and also consumed internally for its detoxifying effects on the body.
  5. Neem (Azadirachta indica): Neem is a versatile medicinal plant known for its antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. It is used to treat skin disorders, boost immunity, and promote overall health.
  6. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri): Brahmi is a renowned brain tonic in Ayurveda, used to improve memory, cognitive function, and concentration. It is also beneficial for reducing anxiety and stress.
  7. Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia): Also known as Guduchi, Giloy is a potent immunomodulator and antioxidant. It is used to boost immunity, treat fever, and manage various chronic diseases i.e., during Covid-19.
  8. Henna (Lawsonia inermis): Henna is not only used as a natural dye for hair and skin but also possesses medicinal properties. It is used to treat headaches, fever, and skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis.
  9. Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna): Arjuna bark is well-known for its cardiovascular benefits. It helps in strengthening the heart muscles, regulating blood pressure, and improving overall heart function.
  10. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum): Tulsi, or Holy Basil, is considered a sacred plant in India and is revered for its medicinal properties. It is used to boost immunity, relieve respiratory problems, and manage stress.
  11. Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi): Ajwain seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine for their digestive properties. They help in relieving indigestion, flatulence, and stomach cramps.
  12. Kantkari (Solanum xanthocarpum): Kantkari is known for its expectorant and bronchodilator properties, making it useful in treating respiratory disorders like asthma, cough, and bronchitis.
  13. Ratanjot (Onosma echioides): Ratanjot, also known as Alkanet, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. It is used externally to relieve pain and inflammation and internally to treat digestive disorders.
  14. Guggul (Commiphora wightii): Guggul resin is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for its cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. It is beneficial for managing obesity, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases.
  15. Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata): Kalmegh is a bitter herb known for its immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. It is used to boost immunity, treat liver disorders, and alleviate symptoms of cold and flu.

These medicinal plants, deeply rooted in traditional knowledge, underscore the rich heritage of herbal medicine in Rajasthan. Their diverse therapeutic properties continue to provide valuable resources for holistic health and well-being in the region.

Q.4 निम्नाकिंत अनुच्छेद का हिन्दी में अनुवाद कीजिएः 

Congress leader Rahul Gandhi’s Bharat Jodo Yatra, or ‘unite India march’, is an audacious attempt to reimagine the country’s politics. Now on a nine-day break, it will resume from Delhi on January 3, towards Srinagar in Kashmir. It began in Kanyakumari on September 7, and has covered over 2,800 kilometres. Against the backdrop of polarising sectarian rhetoric that has become the easiest route to political power, his message of harmony is as inspiring as it is innocently idealistic. 
          For Mr. Gandhi, social harmony is the means and ends of politics. That conception has a fundamental challenge though, because politics cannot escape contestation and combat, as Mr. Gandhi’s own valiant opposition to the BJP and its Hindutva ideology bears out. It is not entirely original to think of politics as a medium of social transformation rather than the route to capturing state power.


कांग्रेस नेता राहुल गांधी की भारत जोड़ो यात्रा, या ‘एकजुट भारत अभियान ‘, देश की राजनीति को फिर से परिभाषित करने का एक साहसिक प्रयास है। अब नौ दिनों के विराम के बाद यह 3 जनवरी को दिल्ली से कश्मीर के श्रीनगर की ओर फिर से शुरू होगी। यह 7 सितंबर को कन्याकुमारी से शुरू हुई थी और 2,800 किलोमीटर से अधिक की दूरी तय कर चुकी है। राजनीतिक सत्ता के लिए सबसे आसान मार्ग बन चुके सांप्रदायिक बयानबाजी की पृष्ठभूमि के खिलाफ, उनका सद्भाव का संदेश उतना ही प्रेरक है जितना कि यह आदर्शवादी है।

श्री गांधी के लिए सामाजिक समरसता राजनीति का साधन और साध्य है। हालांकि, उस अवधारणा की एक बुनियादी चुनौती है, क्योंकि राजनीति प्रतिस्पर्धा और संघर्ष से बच नहीं सकती, जैसा कि भाजपा और इसकी हिंदुत्व विचारधारा के प्रति श्री गांधी के स्वयं के वीरतापूर्ण विरोध से पता चलता है। राज्य की सत्ता पर कब्ज़ा करने के मार्ग के बजाय राजनीति को सामाजिक परिवर्तन के माध्यम के रूप में सोचना पूरी तरह से मौलिक नहीं है।

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