2 May Ras Mains Answer Writing

Ras mains answer writing practice

Click here to download the schedule – English Medium | Hindi Medium

Subject – General Science

Topic – Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic their Diagnosis and Control, Immunization and Vaccination, Drugs and Alcohol abuse

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Biology PYQs – Click Here

Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1. Highlight the major differences between an epidemic and a pandemic.(2M)


Q2. Differentiate between Covishield and Covaxin.(5M)


Q3. Discuss the nature of the COVID-19 virus and briefly explore the control measures implemented by the Government of India.(10M)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).COVID-19 has had a catastrophic effect on the world, resulting in more than 6 million deaths worldwide. 

Nature of virus: 

  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses with a crown-like appearance under an electron microscope due to the presence of spike glycoproteins on the envelope.
  • SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, known as the S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N (nucleocapsid) proteins
  • These viruses can cross species barriers and infect humans as well. SARS‑CoV‑2 has sufficient affinity to the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on human cells to use them as a mechanism of cell entry.
  • Like other RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 adapts with genetic evolution and developing mutations. This results in mutant variants that may have different characteristics than their ancestral strains.
  • SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOCs):
  • Alpha (B.1.1.7 lineage) : First variant of concern →  United Kingdom (UK)
  • Beta (B.1.351): First reported in South Africa
  • Gamma (P.1): First reported in Brazil 
  • Delta (B.1.617.2): First reported in India in December 2020
  • Omicron (B.1.1.529): First reported in South Africa in November 2021

Control measures taken by india 

On 14 March, 2020 india declared the pandemic as a “notified disaster” under the Disaster Management Act, 2005,

  1. India’s 5 fold strategy 
  1. Testing : increased testing → minimum 70 % rtPCR tests and use of rapid antigen test in dense
  2. Tracing : to break the chain of transmission →launched a smart phone application called Aarogya Setu to help in “contact tracing and containing the spread”.
    1. Infected people were quarantined 
  3. Treatment
    1. Treatment of COVID-19 is included under AB-PMJAY
    2. Initially used hydroxychloroquine for high risk area
    3. Used antiviral favipiravir for mild to moderate cases
    4. DRDO → 2-Deoxy-D-glucose ⇒ Treating mild to severe cases 
  4. covid appropriate behavior : janta curfew
    1. On 24th march, India announced nationwide lockdown to contain the spread. 
    2. Government Divided the entire nation into three zones – Green Zone, Red Zone, Orange Zone.
    3. Popularization of : 2 Gaj ki Doori, Greeting without physical contact, Wear reusable hand-made face-cover or mask, at all times ;Wash hands frequently and thoroughly
  5. Vaccination : vaccination drive in 3 phases  → crossed 1 billion 
    1. COVID-19 vaccination campaign “Har Ghar Dastak‟, launched on 3 November
    2. Initiated with Covishield and later indigenous Covaxin
    3. For children : Corbevax, ZyCoV-D vaccine 

2. Humane policy response : 

  • Relief package under Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana for the poor : 
  • Economic measure under Atma Nirbhar Bharat Package (10% of GDP) 
  • mega evacuation of distressed Indian citizens from across the globe called Vande Bharat Mission

         3. Digital Public Infra : Use of COWIN portal 

         4. Strengthening Medical Infrastructure :  

  • PPEs, ICUs, Ventilators
  • Under PM-Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission (PM-ABHIM), the setting up of integrated public health laboratories in all districts 
  • Sanction of PSA Oxygen Generation Plants → PM CARES funds were utilized

During Omicron Variant : 

  • Promptly notify “Containment Zones”, “Buffer Zones” in case in new clusters of Covid positive cases
  • Utilize the access to “AIR SUVIDHA” Portal to monitor the international passengers
  • Utilize funds sanctioned under Emergency COVID Response Package (ECRP-II) to ensure that the requisite capacity of health systems is developed at/near hotspots to respond to any emergency.

Measures to minimize threat of any resurgence of Covid-19 pandemic

  • established an Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance Consortium (INSACOG) for genomic sequencing and tracking the evolution of variant strains of SARS-CoV-2.
  • The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) is supporting the implementation of two key programmes, the National Biopharma Mission (NBM) and the Ind-CEPI Mission, which have enabled the strengthening of the national vaccine development ecosystem, so as to effectively respond to pandemics

Mission COVID Suraksha – the Indian COVID-19 Vaccine Development Mission, was launched as part of the third stimulus package, Atma Nirbhar Bharat 3.0, for promoting research and development of Indian COVID-19 vaccines.

Q.4 निम्नाकिंत अनुच्छेद का हिन्दी में अनुवाद कीजिएः 

The flora and fauna are on the verge of extinction. The deforestation for satisfying the needs of growing population has increased. The destroyed jungles have disturbed the whole food chain which has affected animals too. The hunting of animals for various purposes has minimised their number too.
  The keeping of animals away from their natural habitats gives a hand in reducing their survival rate. Afforestation, curb on human population, intelligent and minimal use of these natural resources etc., are some of the measures which must be strictly observed to give a prosperous and wealthy future to the next generations.


वनस्पति और पशु वर्ग समाप्त होने के कगार पर हैं। बढ़ती हुई जनसंख्या की जरूरतों को संतुष्ट करने के लिये वृक्ष कटाव बहुत अधिक बढ़ गया है । बर्बाद हुए जंगलों ने पूरी खाद्य श्रृंखला को बाधित कर दिया है जिससे जानवर भी प्रभावित हुए हैं। विभिन्न उद्देश्यों के लिए जानवरों का शिकार करने से भी उनकी संख्या कम हो गई है।

जानवरों को उनके प्राकृतिक आवास स्थान से दूर रखने से भी उनके जीवन दर कम हो रही है। वृक्षारोपण, मानव जनसंख्या पर रोक, प्राकृतिक संसाधनों का बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण और कम-से-कम प्रयोग आदि कुछ ऐसे उपाय हैं जिनका सख्ती से पालन आने वाली पीढ़ियों को एक सुसम्पन्न भविष्य देने के लिए करना ही होगा ।

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