1 May RAS Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – General Science

Topic – Genetics and Lifestyle Diseases, Human diseases – Communicable and Non-communicable

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Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1. Write down the blood glucose levels for a normal person and a person with diabetes.(2M)


Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to inadequate insulin production, impaired insulin function, or both.

ConditionBlood Glucose Levels
Normal Person70-99 mg/dL (fasting)
<140 mg/dL (2 hours after meal)
Person with Diabetes>126 mg/dL (fasting)
>200 mg/dL (random, with symptoms)

Q2. What are the key differences between communicable and non-communicable diseases?(5M)


AspectCommunicable DiseasesNon-Communicable Diseases
DefinitionDiseases caused by infectious agents or pathogensDiseases not caused by infectious agents
TransmissionSpread from person to person or through vectorsNot spread from person to person
ExamplesInfluenza, Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19Diabetes, Cancer, Heart Disease, Asthma
PreventionVaccination, hygiene practices, quarantine measuresHealthy lifestyle, regular exercise, diet control
TreatmentAntimicrobial drugs, vaccines, isolationMedication, surgery, lifestyle modifications
Impact on PopulationCan lead to epidemics or pandemics, affects large populationsGenerally affect individuals or smaller groups
Global Health ConcernMajor focus of public health initiativesIncreasing concern due to lifestyle changes and aging populations

Q3. Lifestyle diseases are becoming the new normal diseases. What are lifestyle diseases? Explain their reasons and characteristics. Discuss the efforts taken by governments.(10M)


Lifestyle diseases are health conditions that are primarily caused by unhealthy lifestyle choices and habits. The silent epidemic of lifestyle diseases is fuelled by common behavioral risk factors — unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, the use of tobacco and alcohol — which are all on the rise in India.

  • Some common examples of lifestyle diseases include obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and chronic respiratory conditions.

Reasons for the rise of lifestyle diseases:

  • Unhealthy Diet: High consumption of ultra processed foods, sugary beverages, saturated fats, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity and prolonged periods of sitting or inactivity ⇒ recent lifestyle changes : use of OTT, social media 
  • Tobacco Use: lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory disorders.
  • Excessive Alcohol Intake:liver disease, cardiovascular problems, certain cancers, and other health issues.
  • Stress: Chronic stress and inadequate stress management can trigger unhealthy behaviors such as overeating, smoking, or excessive alcohol consumption.

Characteristics of lifestyle diseases:

  • Non contagious origin
  • Chronic Nature: typically develop gradually over time and persist for an extended period, often requiring long-term management and treatment.
  • Preventable: through lifestyle modifications, including adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, avoiding tobacco and alcohol use, and managing stress effectively.
  • Multifactorial Causes: Lifestyle diseases result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors, making them complex and multifactorial in nature.
  • Impact on Quality of Life: by reducing mobility, causing pain and discomfort, and increasing the risk of disability and premature death.

Efforts taken by governments:

  • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NP-NCD) 
  • 75/25 initiative, aimed at screening and providing standard of care for 75 million individuals with hypertension and diabetes by 2025.
  • COTPA act, 2003  to regulate the use of tobacco products 
  • For prevention, control and screening for common NCDs i.e., diabetes, hypertension and common cancers has been rolled out in the country under NHM and also as a part of Comprehensive Primary Health Care
  • Preventive aspect of NCDs has been strengthened through Ayushman Bharat Health Wellness Centre scheme
  • FSSAI role in promoting Healthy eating ⇒ Eat right campaign, capped the amount of trans fatty acids (TFA) in oils and fats to 2% , restriction on reusing of cooking oil (RUCO), voluntary labeling “Trans fat logo”
  • Fit India movement is implemented by Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
  • Various Yoga related activities are carried out by the Ministry of AYUSH.
  • Diversification of Diet : Promotion of Millets as Shree Anna
  • As per the National Health Policy (2017), the target for non-communicable diseases is to reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases by 25% by 2025.

Ultimately, addressing lifestyle diseases requires a collective effort involving individuals, communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders

Q.4 निम्नाकिंत अनुच्छेद का हिन्दी में अनुवाद कीजिएः 
Would one have ever thought that one day, we will be on the moon! It was just like a dream, wasn’t it? But now it seems that it is going to be possible in the near future. Similarly, whatever seems difficult to us today is not necessarily difficult (out of the reach). Therefore, we must at least try. As well, we should keep patience because something, if not that difficult, is not that easy either.


क्या कभी किसी ने सोचा होगा कि एक दिन हम चाँद पर होंगे ! ये सपने जैसा ही था, है ना ? लेकिन अब लगता है कि ये निकट भविष्य में सम्भव होने वाला है। ठीक इसी तरह , जो भी कुछ आज हमें मुश्किल लगता है , वो जरुरी नहीं मुश्किल हो। इसलिए , कम से कम हमें प्रयास ज़रूर करना चाहिए। और साथ ही, हमें धैर्य भी रखना चाहिए क्योंकि अगर कोई चीज़ उतनी मुश्किल नहीं है , तो उतनी आसान भी नहीं है।

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