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SUBJECT – Rajasthan Geography

TOPIC -Raj Geo: Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Deserts. | Major Rivers and Lakes. | Climatic: Characteristics and their classification. | Major Vegetation types. | Agriculture- Major Crops: Production and Distribution

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Q1 Write about the major saline lakes of Rajasthan. 2M 


Rajasthan is known for salt water lakes.

  •   These lakes are found in the western desert and inter-territorial areas of the state.
  •   These lakes are natural and shallow.
  •   Salt is produced on a commercial scale in most of the lakes.
  •    Most of the salt water lakes in Rajasthan are found in Nagaur district.

Major lakes –

  • Sambhar (Jaipur, Nagaur) is the largest salt water lake of Rajasthan. It was declared a Ramsar site in 1990. Mentha, Rupangarh, Khari, Khandela rivers fall into Sambhar.
  • Pachpadra Lake – Located in Balotra (Barmer), excellent quality salt (98% sodium chloride) is produced here. Here the Kharwal caste uses Morli bush for salt production.
  • The salt of Didwana Lake (Nagaur) is of low grade, hence it is used for industrial purposes instead of eating. Sodium sulphate plant has been installed here.
  • Lunkaransar (Bikaner) and Kuchaman (Nagaur), Talchhapar (Churu), Phalodi (Jodhpur), Rewasa (Sikar), Kavod (Jaisalmer) etc. are other major brackish water lakes.

Q2 Describe the Banas river system and name its tributaries. 5M


Banas river is also known as Yamuna of Rajasthan, Van ki Asha or Varnasha. 

  • Originates from the Khamnor hills of Aravali. 
  • Flows from the Gogunda plateau southwards from Kumbhalgarh, crosses Nathdwara, Rajsamand Rail Magra, passes through Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Tonk districts and meets Chambal in Sawai Madhopur. 
  • Banas is the longest flowing river in the state and the river with the largest catchment area. 
  • Bisalpur Dam has been built near Todaraisingh town on the banks of Banas River.

Tributaries – The main tributaries on the right side are Bedach, Menal and the main tributaries on the left side are Kothari, Khari, Morel, Dhund etc.

Forms three confluences or Triveni Sangam –

  • Rameshwar (Sawai Madhopur): Chambal, Banas and Seep
  • Menal (Bhilwara): Banas, Menal, Berach
  • Rajmahal (Tonk): Banas, Khari, Dye

Q3 Write about the physical divisions of Rajasthan and describe the western desert region in detail. 10M


Rajasthan is divided into four physical regions based on relief and climate

DesertAravalimountainEastern PlainAreaHadoti/MaalPlateau
Area %619237
Population (%)40103911
soilSandy soilMountain soilalluvialLight black/cotton
rainfall0-20 cm20-40 cm40-60cm60-80 cm80-120 
climateArid and semi aridSub humidhumidMaximum humid
Vegetation(Koppen)Xerophytes& thornySteppe(Largest)Dry deciduousDry and wetSavana (vagad hadoti +Mt abu)

Western Desert Region of Rajasthan

Arid Desert (58.5%)

  • Situated to the west of the 25 cm isohyet line
  • Encompasses districts: Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, and parts of Nagaur and Churu
  • Characterized by barchan-type sand dunes and minimal rainfall (0-25 cm)
  • Presence of shallow depressions (Rann) :thob, baap, taal chhapar
  • temporary lakes (Palaya)
  • Abundance of marine fossils indicating the retreat of the tethys sea
  • Strategic significance along the Indo-Pak border
  • Economic importance due to mineral resources → eg. Barmer Petroliferous basin

Semi-arid Region (41.5%)

  • Rocky desert landscapes without sand dune
  • Receives 25-50 cm of rainfall
  • Subdivision
    • Ghaggar basin : Ghaghar → dead river, Clayey and fertile soil 
    • Shekhawati inland: Inland drainage (Kantli, Mentha etc) , BEED(pasture land), JOHAD, SAR(Ponds during monsoon)
    • Nagauri upland : Maximum salt water lakes, HUMP BELT (ajmer-nagaur), Maximum fluoride
    • Luni basin : Luni – Lifeline of desert area; Nehad rann; Saline plant (Halophyte)
    • Notable for saltwater lakes (such as Sambhar, Deedwana) and high fluoride content.

Q4 Discuss the natural vegetation types of Rajasthan. 10M


Despite its arid climate and sparse forest cover compared to other states, Rajasthan’s distinct physical and climatic conditions have led to diverse vegetation types thriving in different ecological niches. However, with only 9.60% forest cover compared to India’s 24.62%, the region faces significant challenges in maintaining its ecosystem balance

  1. Tropical Thorny Forests: (Less than 50 cm rainfall)
  • Found in western arid and semi-arid regions especially in the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Pali, Bikaner, Churu, Nagaur, Sikar, Jhunjhunu etc.
  • Trees are dwarfed in these forests. Their roots are long and leaves are thorny eg . Khejari, Rohida, Ber, Ker, and Thor. 
  • Bushes such as Foag, Akra, Ker, Lana, Arna, and Jharber are also present.
  • Various grasses, including sevan and dhaman, are prevalent.
  1. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests:
  • Cover a huge area in Rajasthan, found in areas with 50 to 100 cm rainfall.
  • Divided into Dry Teak Forests, Salar Forests, Bamboo Forests, Dhokra Forests, Palash Forests, Kher Forests, Babool Forests, and Mixed Deciduous Forests.
  • Trees include Teak, Salar, Bamboo, Dhok, Palash, Kher, Babool, and various other deciduous species.
  • Found in the districts of Udaipur, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Chittorgarh, Baran, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Pali, Ajmer, Jaipur, Alwar, Sikar, and others.
  1. Sub-Tropical Mountain Forest (rainfall > 100 cm):
  • Found only in the Mount Abu area.
  • Characterized by evergreen and semi-evergreen vegetation.
  • Trees include Mango, Bamboo, Neem, Teak, and other species.
  • These forests cover less than 0.5% of the total forested area of Rajasthan.

Q5 Translate the following sentences into English :       
1.थोड़ी देर में आग बुझा देना वरना चारों तरफ फैल जायेगी।
2.अगर मैंने समय रहते इस पर ध्यान नहीं दिया होता, तो यह घातक हो सकता था।
3.कुछ हद तक उसकी बात सही है; लेकिन पूरी तरह नहीं। 
4.एक पल के लिए तो मुझे लगा था कि मैं गया, पर भगवान का शुक्र है कि मैं सही सलामत हॅूं। 
5.शायद उसने सोचा हो कि उसके दोस्त हाथ बढ़ायेंगे और उसकी ताकत बनेंगे।


 1.Put out (Extinguish) the fire just after a while or else (otherwise) it will spread all around.

2.If I hadn’t noticed it before time, it could have been hazardous.

3.To some extent, he is right; But not quite/completely.

4.For a moment, I thought that I was gone, thank God that I am safe.

5.He might have thought that his friends would lend him their hands and become his strength.

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