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SUBJECT – Technology

TOPIC -Defense technology – Missiles, Indian missile programme, Chemical, and Biological weapons

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Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What is Mission Divyastra? 2M


Q2 What are the major differences between cruise missiles and ballistic missiles? 5M


Q3 Answer the following subparts of the question: 10M
1. What is Project Kusha?
2. What is S-400 ?
3. Discuss the Multilateral Export Control Regimes: a) MTCR, b) Australia Group.

3(1). Project Kusha: Jointly developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) with Israel Aerospace Industries

  • Objective: development of India’s very own Long-Range Surface-to-Air Missiles (LR-SAM)  by 2028-29
  • Capabilities: seeks to establish a formidable 3 layered defense system to detect and destroy incoming stealth fighters, aircraft, drones, cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions.
  • Components:  with its long-range surveillance and fire control radars would have different types of interceptor missiles designed to hit hostile targets at 150 km, 250 km, and 350 km ranges.
  • Expected Impact: Rival the effectiveness of Russia’s S-400 and Israel’s Iron Dome systems

3(2). The S-400 Triumf, also known as the SA-21 Growler by NATO, is a highly advanced surface-to-air missile defense system developed by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau. 

  • It is designed to engage a variety of aerial targets, including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and ballistic missiles, at long ranges and high altitudes.
  • Creates Layered defence net : Each system has four different types of missiles for up to 40 km, 120 km, 250 km and maximum range of 400 km and up to 30 km altitude. 
  • India has contracted five S-400 Triumf regiments from Russia under a $5.43 billion deal signed in October 2018. 
  • Woking : S-400 detects an aerial threat approaching the air defence bubble (the area it has to protect), calculates the trajectory of the threat, and fires missiles to counter it. It has long-range surveillance radars that sends information to the command vehicle. On identifying the target, the command vehicle orders a missile launch.

3(3). MTCR

  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is a multilateral export control regime.
    • It is an informal and voluntary partnership among 35 member states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology. 
    • The regime was formed in 1987 by the G-7 industrialized countries. 
  • Objective : The MTCR aims to limit the proliferation of missiles, rocket systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and related technology capable of carrying a 500-kilogram payload over 300 kilometers, as well as systems for delivering weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
  • The regime relies on adhering to shared export policy guidelines applied to a unified list of controlled items.
  • launched The Hague Code of Conduct ⇒ an arrangement to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles
  • India was inducted into the Missile Technology Control Regime in 2016 as the 35th member.

Australia Group: 

  • An informal forum of 43 countries (Including EU) to employ licensing measures to restrict exports of specific chemicals, biological agents, and dual-use manufacturing facilities and equipment that could facilitate chemical or biological weapons (CBWs) proliferation.
  • All states participating in the Australia Group are parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)
  • Its formation was prompted by Iraq’s use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988). 
  • India joined the Australia Group (AG) on 19 January 2018.

Q4 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow – (RPSC SEQ Q. No. 21-25)
There can be no greater example of mankind’s creative genius, than for him to move off from his home planet, and extend life throughout the solar system, by creating new abodes for life. Today with an increasing population of more than six billion people and the fear of possible disaster, the need for an alternative home for mankind has become urgent. Mars stands alone as the only planet in our solar system; not including Earth; that might be able to support life as it has all of the ingredients necessary for life. Though the average surface temperature is thick and warm enough to allow for the flow of liquid water on its surface. 
If it is ever done at all, transforming a dry, desert-like Mars into a lush environment, where people, plants and other animals can survive, will be a huge undertaking that could take several decades or even centuries. Let us examine two methods that have been proposed. One method is placing large orbital mirrors that will reflect sunlight and heat onto the Mars surface. These mirrors would be directed at the polar caps of Mars and they would melt the ice. Over a period of many years, the rise in temperature would release greenhouse gases and heat up the planet. 
Another option would be to set-up solar-powered, greenhouse gas producing factories. These would imitate the natural process of plant photosynthesis, inhaling carbon dioxide and emitting oxygen. The Mars atmosphere would slowly be oxygenated to the point that people on Mars would need only a breathing apparatus. 
While we may reach Mars this century, it would take several millennia for the idea of transforming it into a planet on which plants and animals can flourish. 
21. What are scientists planning with regard to Mars?
22. How are Mars and Earth similar to each other?
23. Why is there a need for an alternate home for humans? 
24.Describe in your own words how orbital mirrors can raise the temperature of Mars. 
25.What role would solar-powered greenhouse factories play on Mars?


21. Scientists are planning to move people from Earth to Mars due to overpopulation on Earth. 

22. Mars and Earth are similar to each other as Mars is the only planet other than Earth in the entire solar system that might be able to support life since it has all the ingredients necessary for life. 

23. There is a need for an alternate home for humans as our population has crossed the 6 billion mark and the fear of possible disaster has gone up. So, to avoid any mishap, it is time to consider a supportive alternative home for mankind. 

24. The orbital mirrors placed facing the polar caps may absorb and reflect all the sunlight which after a period of many years may melt the ice on the caps on Mars. After a few years, the rise in temperature would release greenhouse gases and heat up the planet. 

25. The solar-powered greenhouse gas factories would imitate the natural process of plant photosynthesis, inhaling carbon dioxide and emitting oxygen. Thus, the atmosphere would slowly be oxygenated to a point when Mars could support human life.

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