17 MAY RAS MAINS ANSWER WRITING

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SUBJECT – Technology

TOPIC -Space technology – Indian space program, Satellites, and their orbits, various launch vehicles; Remote sensing

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TECHNOLOGY PYQs – Click Here

Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What are the differences between Geosynchronous and Sun-Synchronous orbits? 2M

Answer:

Q2 What is the primary objective of the Aditya L1 mission, and how does it contribute to understanding solar phenomena? 5M

Answer:

Aditya-L1, the first Indian space-based observatory to study the sun, was launched on September 2, 2023, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota using the PSLV C57 rocket. Recently, it was successfully placed in a halo orbit around the L1 Lagrangian point. . 

Objectives 

  • Study of Solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics 
  • Physics of coronal heating mechanisms and reasons behind extreme temperatures.
  • Understanding the initiation and dynamics of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
  • Investigation into the magnetic field of the solar corona and its role in driving space weather.
  • Examination of particle acceleration on the Sun leading to solar wind generation.
  • Identify the sequence of processes that occur at multiple layers (chromosphere, base and extended corona) which eventually leads to solar eruptive events.

Understanding solar phenomenon: it Carries seven payloads (SUIT, PAPA, HEL1OS, VLEC  etc) to observe the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona using electromagnetic and particle detectors.

  • Understanding the solar corona’s dynamics is crucial for comprehending solar variability and its impacts on Earth’s climate.
  • Capturing Full disk image of the Sun : by Observing UV radiation from different solar atmosphere zones.
  • Discern the roles of natural and anthropogenic factors in climate change.
  • Observing the Sun 24X7 : Aditya-L1 continuously views the Sun without occultation or eclipse, allowing unobstructed observation of solar activities
  • functions as a space weather station :  Data from Aditya L1 aids in predicting geomagnetic storms and understanding space weather dynamics, crucial for protecting satellites and space assets.
  • Advancing solar physics and Enhancing nuclear fusion energy research

Q3 Answer the following subparts of the question: 10M
1.What is NISAR?
2.What is NAVIC, and what is its significance for India?
3.What are the differences between a ramjet and a scramjet engine?

Answer:

1. NISAR MissionNASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar

  • Is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observatory
  • Jointly developed by NASA and ISRO
  • NISAR will map the entire globe in 12 days
  • Carries L and S dual band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
  • Benefits -Disaster Management, Data for Climate change, earth science, crop growth, soil moisture, and land-use changes, Monitoring of oil spills, urbanization, and deforestation

2. Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) : developed by ISRO to meet the positioning, navigation, and timing requirements of India. It was Formerly known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

  • Constellation Composition: Consists of 7 satellites and a network of ground stations operating 24 x 7. Three satellites in geostationary orbit and Four satellites in inclined geosynchronous orbit
  • Services Offered: provide two types of service
    • Standard Position Service (SPS) for civilian users.
    • Restricted Service (RS) for strategic users.
  • Coverage Area:Includes India and a region up to 1500 km beyond the Indian boundary.

Significance for india:

  • Global Recognition: Endorsed by IMO, positioning India as fourth globally to have regional satellite system
  • Strategic Autonomy: Reduces reliance on GPS, ensuring independence.  (Denial of GPS data during kargil war 1999)
  • Socio-Economic Impact:Enables navigation for disaster Management, Vehicle tracking and fleet management, Precise Timing, Mapping and Geodetic data capture etc
  • Accuracy and Reliability: NavIC uses dual frequencies (S and L bands) for enhanced accuracy. It offers 5-20 meters precision for general users and 0.5-5 meters for military applications.
  • Civil Aviation Support: GAGAN system improves aviation navigation.
  • Defense Enhancement: Provides accurate data during hostilities.; Supports modern weapon systems.
  • Coverage in Remote Areas: Extends coverage to inaccessible regions by Utilizing high geo-stationary orbit satellites.
  • Manufacturing Ecosystem: NavIC-enabled chipsets may become standard in all mobile phones in India, replacing GPS.It will boost the mobile telecom industry.

(Extra → NavIC support to become must for all smartphones : While 5G phones will need to provide mandatory support for NavIC by January 1, 2025, all other phones operating in the L1 band that currently use the Global Positioning System (GPS) will need to provide mandatory NavIC support by December 2025)


3. Ramjets and Scramjet difference: They are airbreathing jet engines with no moving parts, relying on the enormous pressures created by supersonic airflow into the engine to ignite fuel without needing the compressors and turbines ( used in the turbofan engines found on conventional jet planes.) Both utilize 100% fuel and obtain oxidizer from the air.

Q4 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow – (RPSC SEQ Q. No. 21-25,)
Each nation has its own peculiar character which distinguishes it from others. But the peoples of the world have more points in which they are all like each other than points in which they are different. One type of person that is common in every country is the one who always tries to do as little as he possibly can and to get as much in return as he can. His opposite, the man who is in the habit of doing more than is strictly necessary and who is ready to accept what is offered in return, is rare everywhere.
Both these types are usually unconscious of their type. The man who avoids effort is always talking about his rights : he appears to think that society owes him a pleasant, easy life. The man who is always doing more than his share talks of ‘duties’ : he feels that the individual is in debt to society, and not society to the individual. As a result of their views, neither of these men thinks that he behaves at all strangely.
The man who tries to do as little as he can is always full of excuses : if he has neglected to do something, it was because he had a headache, or the weather was too hot, or too cold, or because he was prevented by bad luck. At first, other people, such as his friends and his employer, generously accept his stories; but soon they realize what kind of person he is. In the long run, he deceives only himself. When his friends become cool towards him, and he fails to make progress in his job, he is surprised and hurt. He blames everyone and everything except himself. He feels that society is failing in its duties towards him, and that he is being unjustly treated. He soon becomes one of the discontented members of the society he lives in.
His public-spirited opposite is never too busy to take on an extra piece of work: that is the strangest thing about the whole business. If you want something done in a hurry, don’t go to the man who has clearly not much to do. He will probably have a dozen excellent excuses for not being able to help you as much as he claims he would like to. Go to the busiest man you know, particularly if you are sure that he has not a spare minute in the week. If your work is really important, he will make time for it.

21. What kind of person is common and what kind of person is uncommon in every country, according to the author ?
22. What does the man who tries to avoid effort seem to think about other people?
23. Who does this kind of man blame when he is discontented?
24. Why does the author suggest that if you have something which needs doing very quickly, you ought to go to a very busy man and not to one who clearly has not much to do?
25. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context—
Peculiar
Rare
Unconscious
Neglected
Realize

21. What kind of person is common and what kind of person is uncommon in every country, according to the author ?

Ans : A person who always tries to do as little as he possibly can and to get as much in return as he can is the  common man and the man who is in the habit of doing more and ready to accept what is offered in return is uncommon in every country.

22. What does the man who tries to avoid effort seem to think about other people?

Ans :The man who tries to avoid effort seems to think that the society or the  people around him owe him a pleasant and easy life.

23. Who does this kind of man blame when he is discontented?

Ans: This kind of man blames everyone and everything except himself. He feels that society is failing in its duties towards him and  he is being unjustly treated.

24. Why does the author suggest that if you have something which needs doing very quickly, you ought to go to a very busy man and not to one who clearly has not much to do?

Ans: It is because the author feels that the man who has not much to do will probably have many excuses for not being able to help, but the busiest man will make time for it if the work is really important.

25. Give for each of them another word or phrase of similar meaning to that in the context

  1. Peculiar – unusual
  2. Rare – uncommon
  3. Unconscious – unaware
  4. Neglected – ignored
  5. Realize – perceive

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