28 May RAS Mains Answer Writing

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SUBJECT – Indian Political System

TOPIC -Parliament, and Parliamentary System, President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers​

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Indian Polity PYQs – Click Here

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Q1 Describe the special powers given to the Rajya Sabha over the Lok Sabha. 2M


The Rajya Sabha has been given four exclusive or special powers that are not enjoyed by the Lok Sabha:

  1. It can authorise the Parliament to make a law on a subject enumerated in the State List (Article 249)
  2. It can authorise the Parliament to create new All-India Services common to both the Centre and states (Article 312)
  3. A resolution for the removal of the vice president can be introduced only in the Rajya Sabha and not in the Lok Sabha (Article 67)
  4. If any type of emergency is proclaimed by president and approved by Rajya sabha, it remains effective even if it approved alone by Rajya sabha (If LS is dissolved or going to be dissolved within period)

Position of Rajya sabha is not as weak as the House of Lords in Britain nor as strong as Senate in America.

Q2 What is the role of the president under article 123 of the constitution ? 5M


a. Article 123 of the Constitution empowers the President to promulgate ordinances during the recess of Parliament.

b. The ordinance-making power allows the President to deal with unforeseen or urgent matters. But, the exercise of this power is subject to the following four limitations:

i. Ordinances can be issued when both Houses are not in session or when only one House is in session. (not a parallel power of legislation)

ii. The President can issue an ordinance only when satisfied that immediate action is necessary, and his satisfaction is justiciable on the ground of malafide (Cooper case, 1970).

iii. Ordinances can only be issued on subjects on which Parliament can make laws and are subject to the same constitutional limitations as acts of Parliament.

iv. Every ordinance issued during the recess of Parliament must be laid before both Houses when it reassembles.

 Q3 Discuss the desirability of the idea of ‘One Nation, One Election,’ and highlight the major challenges in its adoption. 10M


Recently the High-level Committee on Simultaneous Elections, constituted under the chairmanship of Shri Ram Nath Kovind, has proposed simultaneous elections for Lok Sabha, state Assemblies, and local bodies in India.

Desirability of simultaneous elections:

  1. Cost Savings: Estimated savings of ₹4,000 crore for Central government and reduced campaign expenses for political parties.
  2. Governance Efficiency: Avoidance of ‘permanent campaign’ mode hindering policy making.
  3. Timely Policy Decisions: Election code of conduct delays key policy decisions.
  4. Efficient Resource Utilization:
    1. Reduced deployment of police and para-military forces.
    2. Key law enforcement personnel can focus on critical functions.
  5. Social Cohesion: reduce the divisive impact of regionalism, casteism, and communalism in mobilising voters.
  6. ​​Reduction in Political Corruption:Frequent elections necessitate continuous fundraising.
  1. Mitigation of Horse Trading: Specific election periods minimize chances of horse-trading.
  2. Control over Freebies: Fewer elections lead to better financial management for state governments.
  3. Simplified Electoral Process:Using uniform electoral rolls across all elections saves time and money
  4. Enhanced Voter Engagement: Voter fatigue, resulting from frequent elections at different levels, can be alleviated by consolidating polls into a single event.

Challenges in its adoption:

  1. Federal Character Concerns: National issues overshadow regional ones, disadvantaging regional parties.
  2. Accountability: Elections serve as a periodic feedback mechanism for policies and governance. Simultaneous elections would limit this feedback to a 5-year cycle.
  3. Constitutional Amendments: substantial amendments to Articles 83, 85, 172, and 174 would be necessary, affecting the duration and dissolution of legislative houses .
  4. Security Implications: During simultaneous elections, deploying large security forces for election duty may weaken national security by diverting resources from border protection.
  5. Logistical Challenge: The Election Commission has to deploy ~30 Lakh EVMs and VVPAT machines to implement ONOE.

Way Forward: Simultaneous elections are beneficial for governance, cost-saving, and reducing corruption. The government should build consensus among political parties for successful implementation and then adopt panel recommendations with suitable amendments.

Q4 Make a precis of the following passage in about one-third of its length.        
Climate change is an urgent global crisis. The Earth’s climate is rapidly changing due to human activities, primarily the emission of greenhouse gases. These gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, trap heat in the atmosphere, leading to rising global temperatures. The consequences are severe, with more frequent and intense heat waves, extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and disruptions to ecosystems. Climate change poses a significant threat to human well-being, biodiversity, and the planet’s overall stability. To address this crisis, international cooperation, policy changes, and a shift toward sustainable practices are imperative.


Facing the Global Climate Crisis

Climate change, caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases, is a pressing global crisis. It results in rising temperatures, more extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and threats to ecosystems, endangering human well-being and biodiversity. Addressing this crisis requires international cooperation and sustainable policies.

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