12 June RAS Mains Answer Writing

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SUBJECT – Behavior

TOPIC – Intelligence: Cognitive intelligence, Social and Emotional intelligence, Cultural intelligence, Spiritual intelligence | Personality: Traits and Types, Determinants of Personality and Assessment of Personality

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Behavior PYQs – Click Here

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Q1 Describe Allport’s definition of Personality. 2M


According to Gordon Allport “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”

Q2 Differentiate between Trait and Type approach of Personality.? 2M


Trait ApproachType Approach
Defines personality based on specific psychological qualitiesClassifies personality into a broad form of behavioural characteristics.
Focuses on identifying and measuring traitsEmphasises categorising individuals into groups
Traits are enduring characteristicsTypes are predetermined categories with little variation
Example: Big Five model identifies traitsExample: Carl Jung’s extrovert and introvert type

Q3 Explain the characteristics of Projective Techniques of Personality Assessment. 5M


Characteristics of Projective Techniques of Personality Assessment:

(1) The stimuli are relatively or fully unstructured and poorly defined. 

(2) The person being assessed is usually not told about the purpose of assessment and the method of scoring and  interpretation. 

(3) The person is informed that there are no correct or incorrect responses. 

(4) Each response is considered to reveal a significant aspect of personality. 

(5) Scoring and interpretation are lengthy and sometimes subjective.

Q4 What is emotional intelligence? Discuss its significance in achieving success. 5M


According to Salovey and Mayer, emotional intelligence is “the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions”. 

 It involves empathy, self-awareness, self-regulation, social skills, and motivation.

Significance in Achieving Success:

  • Leadership: empathy, communication, and conflict resolution, leading to better team dynamics and organizational success.
  • Relationship Management: fosters healthy interpersonal relationships, crucial for collaboration, networking, and career advancement.
  • Decision Making: considering both logical reasoning and emotional implications, leading to better outcomes.
  • Adaptability: Navigate change, setbacks, and challenges with resilience, fostering adaptability and innovation.

Personal Well-being: High EI correlates with reduced stress, improved mental health, and overall well-being, contributing to sustained success and fulfilment.

Q5 Elaborate any one of the following themes in approximately 150 words. [RAS Mains 2021]
 No man should be condemned unheard.


No man should be condemned unheard

      “No man should be condemned unheard” or that both the sides must be heard before passing any order. A man cannot incur the loss of property or liberty for an offence by a judicial proceeding until he has a fair opportunity of answering the case against him. In many statutes, provisions are made ensuring that a notice is given to a person against whom an order is likely to be passed before a decision is made, but there may be instances where though an authority is vested with the powers to pass such orders which affect the liberty or property of an individual but the statute may not contain a provision for prior hearing. 

A person must be allowed an adequate opportunity to present their case where certain interests and rights may be adversely affected by a decision-maker. To ensure that these rights are respected, the deciding authority must give both the opportunity to prepare and present evidence and to respond to arguments presenting by the opposite side. When conducting an investigation in relation to a complaint it is important that the person being complained against is advised of the allegations in as much detail as possible and given the opportunity to reply to the allegations.

                In the present day, without affording hearing by an unbiased and impartial authority that must act objectively and must also give out his mind, as to what weighed in decision making process, by incorporating reasons to support the decision or, to say so, by giving a speaking order. This is necessary for a society, which is governed by Rule of law. How substantive laws are applied and rights are determined is a question not less important, to say it again, the principles of natural justice are great humanizing principles intended to invest law with fairness to secure justice and to prevent miscarriage of justice. And no man should be condemned unheard.

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