4 June RAS Mains Answer writing

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SUBJECT – Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

TOPIC – New Public Administration, New Dimensions of New Public Management, Change Management, Development Administration: Meaning, Scope and Characteristics

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Q1 Distinguish between Administration of development and Development of administration.  2M


AspectAdministration of DevelopmentDevelopment of Administration
DefinitionImplementing  developmental programs for socio-economic transformation.Reforming and strengthening of administrative capabilities. 
Activitiesincludes planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of development projects and programs.Institutional reforms, capacity building, training, and modernization of administrative systems.
ImportanceEssential for achieving developmental objectives.Crucial for effective support of development efforts.
Examples Implementing poverty alleviation programs, infrastructure development projects, education initiatives, etc.Mission Karmyogi, JAM trinity etc 

Q2 What is New Public Administration ? Discuss its Goals and Anti-Goals? 5M


The New Public Administration (NPA) refers to a movement within the field of Public Administration that emerged following deliberations in the first Minnowbrook Conference held in 1968. 

  • NPA gives significance to ‘Public’ rather than ‘administration’, emphasizing ‘values’ and ‘philosophy’ rather than ‘principles’ and ‘procedures’, and prioritizing ‘effectiveness’ and ‘service efficiency’ rather than ‘efficiency’ and ‘economy’.

Five (Positive) Goals or Themes : By Frank Marini

  1. Relevance: Address contemporary issues 
  2. Values: Rejects value-neutral stance and advocates transparency.
  3. Social Equity: Prioritizes underprivileged sections.
  4. Change: Active participation in social change
  5. Client-focus: Empowering clients.

Anti-Goals of the NPA : By Robert T. Golambiewski 

  1. Anti-positivism: 
  2. Anti-technical: 
  3. Anti-bureaucratic and anti-hierarchical:

Q3 What is New Public Management? Discuss its features that contribute to reinventing government. 10M


New Public Management (NPM) represents the second reinvention in public administration in the late 1980s and early 1990s, driven by the demands of globalization, liberalization, and privatization. It is also known as ‘Managerialism’ or ‘Entrepreneurial Government

  • It combines elements of public choice theory and neo-Taylorism.
  • NPM aims to blend elements of public and private administration, focusing on “3Es” -economy, efficiency, and effectiveness.
  • It staunchly advocates a basic change in the role of state in society and economy. It emphasises on the vital role of the ‘market’ as against the ‘state’ as the key regulator of society and economy.
  • Anti-Goals of NPM : NPM rejects following principles of traditional public administration.: (i) Politics-administration dichotomy  (ii) Hierarchy-ridden organization (iii) Over-centralisation of power (iv) Supremacy of rules in administration

Reinventing Government : Osborne and Gaebler in “Reinventing Government” have identified the ten goals (features or principles) of new public management (entrepreneurial government).

  1. Catalytic Government: Government should inspire action across sectors to solve societal issues.
  2. Community-owned Government: Empower communities to solve their own problems.
  3. Competitive Government: Introduce competition to improve efficiency and reduce costs.
  4. Mission-driven Government: Focus on goals rather than rules.
  5. Results-oriented Government: Measure success by outcomes, not inputs.
  6. Customer-driven Government: Treat citizens as customers and provide choices and convenience.
  7. Enterprising Government: Focus on earning money rather than just spending it.
  8. Anticipatory Government: Identify and prevent problems before they arise.
  9. Decentralized Government: Disperse authority to lower levels and encourage teamwork.
  10. Market-oriented Government: Use market mechanisms to achieve goals and drive change.

These features of NPM reinvented governments worldwide through : Privatizing public undertakings, Reducing government size, Corporatizing government organizations, Cutting budgets and welfare expenditure, Reforming Civil Service structures, Implementing performance measurement and evaluation, Decentralizing authority to lower levels, Outsourcing services to private agencies, Promoting openness and transparency, Encouraging citizen participation, Establishing Citizen’s Charters and similar initiatives.


(1)  Creative Cat Rat dundhte huye  Every day Mountain pe Chadti hai, aur wha jake Carefree hoke Apni Masti me Dance karne lg jati hai
(2) Choco CREam Mera Chatora Cousin  Aur Meri Didi kha gae – ye Argon ka Cake 

C – Catalytic Government 

C – Community-owned Government

R – Results-oriented Government

E – Enterprising Government

M – Mission-driven Government

C – Competitive Government

C – Customer-driven Government

A – Anticipatory Government

M – Market-oriented Government

D – Decentralized Government

Q4. Write a paragraph on any one of the following in approximately 200 words. [RAS Mains 2021]
Freedom of Speech and Democracy


 Freedom of Speech and Democracy

Freedom of speech is the fourth pillar of democracy. Democracy is the government for the people, of the people and by the people. This right to express gives us a right to criticise and ask the state to function properly and work as it is obliged to. Freedom of expressions gives us something more than just existence, it gives us a reason to live with dignity. It makes us a social being.

  Article 19 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”

The right to expression is essential for our autonomy and free will, to an individual’s right to self-development, and to truth seeking.

    If citizens are to be able to rule as democracy requires, it’s after all the rule of the people, by the people. If citizens are to be able to rule, they must be able to communicate freely, including with those that they elect and who govern them. They must be free to criticise, question, challenge, all of which requires full access to information and ideas. Freedom of expression teaches tolerance and builds tolerant societies.

In recent years it has been seen that political parties have become so intolerable to matters against them that they choose violence over citizens and it has been found that most of the aggrieved parties had just expressed their general views on social media. Sometimes it is seen that illiterate political supporters who lack the basic knowledge of the English language infer some different meanings of tweets, statements posted by people online.

   As George Washington said “If freedom of speech is taken away, then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.”

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