1 June RAS Mains Answer Writing

Ras mains answer writing practice

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SUBJECT -Rajasthan Polity

TOPIC – Rajasthan Polity – Party System, Political Demography, Different phases of Political competition in Rajasthan | Panchayati Raj and Urban self Government Institutions

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Rajasthan Polity PYQs – Click Here

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Q1 What are the determinants of politics in Rajasthan? 2M


Determinants of Rajasthan Politics:

  • Caste-based Politics: Caste influences ticket distribution, political appointments, and voter behavior. Initially dominated by Rajputs and Jats, other castes like Gurjar, Meena, Meghwal etc  gained prominence after 1970.
  • The anti-incumbency factor has played a major role in the alternating power shifts between the Congress and BJP over the last 25 years.
  • Absence of State Political Parties : National parties – BJP and Congress have overshadowed regional parties.
  • Primacy of Groups: Factionalism within Congress (Vyas vs Sukhadiya, Gehlot vs Pilot) and BJP (Shekhawat vs Harishankar Bhabhda) is notable.
  • Defection Politics: Used by leaders like ML Sukhadiya, BS Bhairosingh, and Ashok Gehlot to gain power.
  • Independent MLAs played crucial roles in the rising of figures like M.L. Sukhadiya, B.S. Shekhawat, and Ashok Gehlot to the position of Chief Minister.
  • Impact of Feudalism: Evident in the early post-independence period (formation of Swatantra party, Ram rajya parishad).The use of titles like Maharani for Diya Kumari and Vasundhara Raje indicates a feudalistic mentality.
  • Local Issues: Parties address concerns such as ERCP, paper leaks, water crisis, women’s security, and farm loans.

Q2 Describe the main features of the recent Assembly Election in Rajasthan. 5M


Main Features of the 2023 Rajasthan Assembly Election:

  • BJP Secures Majority: BJP emerged victorious with 115 seats, forming the government in the Sixteenth Legislative Assembly.
  • Congress as Largest Opposition: Congress secured 69 seats, becoming the largest opposition party in the assembly.
  • Adjourned Election: The Karanpur seat election was adjourned due to the death of the INC’s candidate.
  • Minor Parties’ Performance: Bharat Adivasi Party won 3 seats, while Bahujan Samaj Party won 2 seats. Rashtriya Lok Dal and Rashtriya Loktantrik Party each won one seat. Additionally, 8 independent candidates were elected.
  • Voter Turnout: The voter turnout was 75.45%, with an increase of 0.73% compared to the 2018 Assembly elections. Postal ballot accounted for 0.83% of the total voting.
  • EVM Voting: 74.62% of the voting took place through Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). Men voted at 74.53%, women at 74.72%, and 348 votes were cast by third gender voters.
  • Variation in Voting Percentage: Voting percentage through EVM ranged from a high of 88.13% in Kushalgarh to a low of 61.24% in Ahor constituency. Baseri constituency witnessed the highest increase in voting at 9.6%.
  • Home Voting Facility: For the first time, senior citizens above 80 years and specially-abled voters with over 40% disability were eligible for home voting. Approximately 18.05 lakh voters availed of this facility.
  • Digital Certificate Issuance: Voters who uploaded a selfie after voting received digital certificates on the CEO Rajasthan website.

Q3 What are the major challenges encountered by local self-governments in India? How can local self-governance in India be strengthened? 10M


The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 constitutionalized local self-government to strengthen democracy at the grassroots level. While beneficial in many aspects, implementation challenges have limited their effectiveness over the past three decades.

Major challenges faced by local self-governments in India:

  1. Functional Challenges:
    • State Control: Most states have not adequately devolved functions to local government bodies.
    • Parallel Structures: State governments create parallel structures for projects in agriculture, health, and education, undermining local bodies’ status and autonomy.
    • Non-functional Committees: District Planning Committees, mandated by the 74th amendment, are non-functional in many states.
    • Excessive Bureaucratic Control:In certain States, Gram Panchayats are subordinated, forcing Sarpanches to spend excessive time seeking funds and technical approvals from Block Offices.
    • Status of the Gram Sabha:Many State Acts lack clarity on the powers and procedures of Gram Sabhas, as well as penalties for officials.
  2. Financial Challenges:
    • Overwhelming dependency on government funding: Most local bodies rely heavily on external sources for funding, with around 80-95% of revenue coming from State and Union Government loans and grants.
    • Tied nature of funds :  Funds devolved to local governments often come with conditionalities, limiting their flexibility in spending based on local needs.
    • Reluctance to Use Fiscal Powers: Gram Panchayats have the authority to levy taxes on property, business, markets, fairs, and services like street lighting or public toilets. However, very few Panchayats exercise this fiscal power
    • State Finance Commission Delays:Several states are yet to constitute their 6th State Finance Commission in accordance with the constitutional mandate, which requires their formation every five years.
    • Low Expenditure: Local government expenditure is only 2% of GDP, significantly lower than major economies like China and Brazil.
  3. Functionary Challenges:
    • Organisational Capacity: Local bodies often lack the necessary human resources and technical expertise to effectively plan and implement development projects.
    • Centralization of service delivery through technology, undermining local decision-making.
  4. Other Challenges:
    • Delayed elections and prolonged periods of non-functional local governments.
    • Low voter turnout and inadequate interest in urban government functioning, despite relatively higher literacy.
    • Limited effectiveness of women’s representation due to the “Sarpanch Pati” syndrome, where male relatives wield actual power.
    • A large number of elected representatives of PRIs are semiliterate or illiterate and know little about their roles & responsibilities, programmes, procedures, systems. 

Ways to strengthen the local self-governance in India:

  • Ensure effective implementation of the 73rd/74th Constitutional Amendments:  regular constitution of State Finance Commissions, and timely elections.
  • Strengthening devolution of powers: State governments must devolve more powers and functions to local bodies.
  • Financial empowerment: The central and state governments should ensure adequate fiscal transfers to local bodies and enable them to tap additional sources of revenue.
  • Regular Training and capacity building programs should be organized for elected representatives and officials, equipping them with the necessary skills and knowledge.
  • Accountability and transparency: Measures like social audits, citizen report cards, and e-governance initiatives should be encouraged.
  • Revitalize Gram Sabhas and ward committees, facilitating inclusive discussions.
  • Foster citizen participation and engagement through NGOs and civil society organizations, while educating the public about local governance processes and decisions.

Despite its limitations, the local self-government system serves as the “tool of democratic seed drilling in the Indian soil,” as envisioned under Article 40 of the Constitution. Implementing recommendations from the 2nd ARC Commission and NCRWC can further strengthen this system.

Q4. Make a precis of the following passage in about one-third of its length: 
Home is for the young, who know “nothing of the world and who would be forlorn and sad, if thrown upon it. It is providential, shelter of the weak and inexperienced, who have to learn as yet to cope with the temptations which lies outside of it. It is the place of training of those who are not only ignorant, but have no yet learnt how to learn, and who have to be taught by careful individual trail, how to set about profiting by the lessons of teacher. And it is the school of elementary studies not of advances, for such studies alone can make master minds. Moreover, it is the shrine of our best affections, the bosom of our fondest recollections, at spell upon our after life, a stay for world weary mind and soul; wherever we are, till the end comes. Such are attributes or offices of home, and like to these, in one or other sense or measure, are the attributes and offices of a college in a university.


 Precis: Home and College: Sanctuaries of Growth

Home shelters the young who are weak and unexperienced and unable to face the temptations in life. It is a centre of their elementary education and a nursery of sweet affections and pleasant memories. Its magic lasts for ever. A weary mind turn to it for rest. Such is the function of a home and in some measure of the university.

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