9 April 2024 RAS Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – Indian History

Topic – History of Modern India from the beginning of the 19th Century to 1965 A.D: Significant events, personalities, and issues Indian National Movement – its various stages & streams, important contributors and contributions from different parts of the country

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Q1 Outline the key features of the ‘Poona Pact’.(2M)

 Poona Pact : Madan Mohan Malaviya signed it on behalf of Hindus and Gandhi, and B. R. Ambedkar on behalf of depressed classes on September 24, 1932

  • Purpose : The pact aimed to address the issue of political representation for depressed classes
  • Abandoned the idea of separate electorates for the depressed classes. 
  • System of joint electorates : allowing them to vote alongside the general population.
  • Seats reserved for the depressed classes were increased from 71 to 147 in provincial legislatures and to 18 per cent of the total in the Central Legislature. → Nearly Doubled 

The Poona Pact was accepted by the government as an amendment to the Communal Award.

Q2 Discuss the role played by Ram Prasad Bismil in the Indian Freedom Struggle.(5M)

Ram Prasad Bismil (1897 – 1927), an eminent Indian poet, writer, and revolutionary freedom fighter, left an indelible mark on the struggle for India’s independence through his multifaceted contributions:

  1. Mainpuri Conspiracy (1918): Bismil initiated the Mainpuri Conspiracy, forming the revolutionary organization Matrivedi and engaging in fund collection through looting, leading to legal repercussions.
  2. Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)(1924): Alongside Chatterjee and Sanyal, Bismil founded the Hindustan Republican Association in 1924, aiming to organize an armed revolution against colonial rule.
  3. Kakori Conspiracy (1925): Bismil masterminded the Kakori Conspiracy, orchestrating a historic train robbery near Lucknow to symbolize resistance against British oppression.
  4. Ideological Rethinking: In his final days, Bismil advocated for a shift in revolutionary strategies, urging the youth to abandon violence and work openly for the cause.
  5. Influence on Youth and Hindu-Muslim Unity: Bismil inspired the youth, emphasizing Hindu-Muslim unity and urging political groups to unite under the Indian National Congress.
  6. Literary Contributions: collections of patriotic poems, including “Man ki Lahar” and “Kranti Geetanjali,” which resonated with the spirit of the independence movement.
  7. Sacrifice and Martyrdom: he was executed on December 19, 1927, solidifying his status as a martyr in the quest for India’s independence.
  8. He popularized “Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hai, dekhna ki zor kitna baazu-e-qatil mein hai.” (The desire for revolution is in our hearts, we shall see how much strength lies in the arms of the enemy.)”

Thus, Bismil emerged as a hero to the youth, playing a pivotal role in galvanizing young minds to join the cause of the freedom struggle through his revolutionary activities and inspiring writings.

Q3 Though limited in their approach, the Moderates did a great deal to awaken national  sentiments.”Critically examine the statement.(10M)

 During the early years of the Congress, moderate leaders such as Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, G.K. Gokhale, and Pherozshah Mehta dominated the scene. Their approach was characterized by agitation within the framework of the law, emphasizing orderly political progress.

Approach 🤲

  • Constitution Agitation Within Legal Boundaries.
  • Creation of Strong Political Opinion to Arouse National Consciousness and Unity.
  • Utilization of the “3 Ps” – Prayer, Petition, and Protest.
  • Campaigning for Support through a British Committee of the INC in London.

Limitations of Their Approach 👎:

  • Limited Social Base: They believed the movement should be restricted to the middle-class intelligentsia, considering the masses not yet ready for political participation.
  • Belief in England’s Providential Mission in India.
  • Advocacy for Political Connections with Britain in India’s Social, Political, and Cultural Interests.
  • Professed Loyalty to the British Crown.
  • Support for Modest Political Reforms without Demanding Full Freedom.
  • No Major Protests Organized during Their Time.
  • The outbreak of World War I exposed the limitations of the Moderate approach.

Role in Awakening National Sentiments through 👍:

  • Economic Critique of British Imperialism:
    • Criticized the drain of wealth from India, demanding reduction in land revenue, abolition of salt tax, reduction in military expenditure, and tariff protection for Indian industries.
    • In “Poverty and Un-British rule in India”, Naoroji calculated drain of 200-300 mn pounds of revenue to britain
  • Demanded Expansion and Reforms in Councils → Control over Finances.
    • Efforts Culminated into the Indian Councils Act of 1892: though Limited in its goal 
  • Campaign for General Administrative Reforms:
    • Indianization of Government Services.
    • Separation of Judiciary from Executive.
    • Criticism of Aggressive Foreign Policy.
    • Increase in Welfare Expenditure on Education and Agriculture.
    • Better Treatment of Indian Labor Abroad.
  • Protection of Civil Rights: Advocated for Rights to Speech, Thoughts, Association, and a Free Press.
  • Contribution to Awakening Consciousness of Common Interests and a Common Enemy, fostering a sense of belonging to one nation.
  • Popularized Modern Ideas like Democracy.

Despite the constraints in their approach, the Moderates played a crucial role in shaping the initial nationalist discourse, laying a robust foundation for the mass-based national movement in the subsequent years.

Q4 निम्नांकित पंक्ति का भाव-विस्तार कीजिए : (शब्द सीमा : लगभग 100 शब्द)
“चन्दन विष व्यापे नहीं, लिपटे रहत भुजंग” 


“जो रहीम उत्तम प्रकृति, का करि सकत कुसंग। 

चंदन विष व्यापत नहीं, लपटे रहत भुजंग॥”

                    इस दोहे में रहीम कहते हैं कि जिस तरह चंदन के पेड़ पर कितने भी सांप लिपटे हो तो भी चंदन विषैला नहीं होता, उसी प्रकार सज्जन पुरूष पर बुराइयों और आस-पास के विद्वेषपूर्ण पर्यावरण का कोई प्रभाव नहीं पड़ता।

जो व्यक्ति अच्छे स्वभाव का होता है, उसे बुरी संगति भी बिगाड़ नहीं पाती। चंदन वृक्ष की सुगन्ध और शीतलता के कारण अजगर जैसे विशाल विषधर उस पर लिपटे रहते हैं, परंतु वह विषाक्त नहीं होता। उसी प्रकार उत्तम प्रकृति के महान लोगों पर भी बुरी संगति का कोई असर नहीं होता, जैसे कमल का फूल कीचड़ में रहकर भी मलीन ना होकर अपनी शोभा बनाए रखता है। 

जिन लोगों में सतोगुण की अधिकता होती है अथवा जो सात्विक प्रवृत्ति के होते हैं, बुराई भी उनके पास आती है तो शीतलता ही ढूँढती है और उनकी खुशबू का आनन्द लेकर प्रसन्न होती है, जैसे डाकू अंगुलिमाल बुद्ध के शरण में आकर संत बन गया।

                  उत्तम प्रकृति के लोगों की महानता उनके विशाल हृदय, दूसरों के प्रति दया व सहानुभूति की भावना और बिना किसी भेदभाव के सबके कष्टों को हरने की इच्छा आदि गुणों के कारण होती है। अच्छे लोगों के पास दुराचारी भी आ जाए तो भी उनका स्वभाव नहीं बदलता। वे उसके साथ भी सहृदयता का व्यवहार करते हुए शरण देते हैं। उनकी अच्छाई परिवर्तनकारी बनकर, दूसरों को सन्मार्ग दिखा देती है। इसीलिए, तुलसीदास भी कहते हैं कि सज्जन और रसदार फलों वाले वृक्ष दूसरों के लिए फलते-फूलते हैं क्योंकि लोग तो उन वृक्षों पर या सज्जनों पर इधर से पत्थर मारते हैं पर उधर से वे उन्हें पत्थरों के बदले में फल देते हैं।

“तुलसी’ संत सुअंब तरु, फूलि फलहिं पर हेत। 

इतते ये पाहन हनत, उतते वे फल देत।।”

“मैं हारा हूं, पर मैंने हार नहीं मानी” 
हार जीत में तभी बदल सकती है जब हम अपने लक्ष्य की ओर और अधिक ऊर्जा के साथ बढ़ें। जो व्यक्ति अंधेरे पथ में भी स्वंय दीपक बनकर अपनी राह तलाश लेता है, वास्तव में वही इंसान सफल और कर्मठ है। 
असफलता को अपनी जीत का आधार बना लें। 

याद रखिए- ना हार में ना जीत में, किंचित नहीं भयभीत में;
कर्तव्य पथ पर जो भी मिला, यह भी सही, वह भी सही।

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