20 April 2024 RAS Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – Administrative Ethics

Topic -Ethical decision-making and contributing factors; social justice, humanitarian concerns, accountability in governance and code of ethics, Case Studies on above-mentioned topics

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Q1 Differentiate between Code of Conduct and Code of Ethics. (2M)

Code of ConductCode of Ethics
A code of conduct is a set of rules that outlines the norms and responsibilities of an individual or an organizationA code of ethics is an aspirational document containing ethical standards, Values, principles, and ideals for anorganization
Objective in naturesubjective in nature and open to interpretation 
Legal backingNo legal backing
Specific, narrow, and mandatory to followBroad, Non-specific, and not mandatory to follow
Ex – Rajasthan Civil Service Conduct Rules 1971Ex – WHO code of ethics and Hippocratic oath taken by doctors

Q2 Indian administration time and again has proved that it’s the backbone to deal with various humanitarian concerns. Prove this statement with suitable examples.(5M)

Q3 Case Study (10M)
A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The salary is also good. However, after a few months, she accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems for the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods. They advise her to keep quiet as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole breadwinner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings.At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck? But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart, she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.

(a)What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?

    (b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why?

ANS:

Intro – 

  1. This case study represents the ethical dilemmas of development (Chemical production) vs conservation (Saving polluting rivers),  Professional life (Integrity at Job) vs personal life (taking care of ailing parents and siblings), and Social ethics (Saving villagers downstream) vs economic ethics (Saving job). 
  2. Recently, NGT passed an order over the deteriorating condition of river stretches across the country due to the dumping of hazardous chemicals. 
  3. Ignoring the health of the river and villagers, violates the constitutional ethics as dictated in Articles 48A (environmental protection) and Article 21 (Right to life) respectively 

Stakeholders – Engineering graduate, Villagers downstream, River, Colleagues, Seniors, Family members, Myself 

  1. My arguments – 
  1. Against the voice of conscience [Clear conscience is the softest pillow] 
  2. Against the constitutional ethics [Vilation of Article 21 – Right to life of villagers and A 48A – Duty of the state for environmental protection] 
  3. Violation of values like accountability (towards her duty), empathy (towards villagers), humanity (Loss of lives due to toxic chemicals), justice and other human values  
  4. Violates the principles of environmental ethics and biochemical ethics (Safe disposal of hazardous waste) 
  5. Would set a bad precedent and hence a bad work culture 
  6. Against the philosophy of ‘Sarve bhavantu sukhin, Surve santu niramaya’ 

    B) Advised course of action and why – 

  • Gather enough tangible evidence of dumping (Like photographs, Water samples, satellite images, etc) – This would help her prove the point even in court 
  • Contacting the village doctor or PHC (Primary health center) to gather data about health problems 
  • Taking Colleagues into confidence and convincing them to stand for the truth 
  • Awareness among villagers [Through third party] for the wrong that is happening 
  • Informing the seniors about the same and then noticing their response. She might get some supportive senior 
  • Meanwhile, apply for an alternative job and works on skill development so that she has an extra jon in her hand and hence take care of her dependent family 
  • Be well-read about Whistleblowers Protection Act 2011 

By not giving in to the pressure of the company management and at the same time taking care of the family, she sincerely follows her Swadharma as told by Lord Krishna in Geeta.

At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck? But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart, she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.

Q4. ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में बेहतर चिकित्सा सेवाएँ उपलब्ध करवाने हेतु बांसवाड़ा के जिलाधीश की ओर से जिले के मुख्य चिकित्सा एवं स्वास्थ्य अधिकारी को एक कार्यालयी पत्र लिखिए   [RAS Mains 2016]
                                                       
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