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SUBJECT – Indian Geography

TOPIC -Broad Physical Features: Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Deserts | Major Physiographic Divisions of India ​

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Q1 List the names of the different ranges of the Himalayas along with their formation periods (epochs) 2M


The Himalayas, a new folded mountain, resulted from the Eurasian Plate colliding with the Indian Plate during the Cenozoic Era. Sediments from the Tethys Sea between these plates underwent upheavals in various geological periods, forming three successive ranges:

  1. Greater Himalayas (Himadri): Formed during the Eocene Period (about 65 million years ago).
  2. Lesser Himalayas (Himachal): Formed during the Miocene Period (about 45 million years ago).
  3. Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas): Formed during the Pliocene Period (about 1.4 million years ago).

Q2 Differentiate between western ghats and eastern ghats . 5M


Q3 What are the significant geographical features of the Peninsular Plateau? Explain. 10M


This is one of the oldest and the most stable landmass of India. Delhi ridge in the northwest, (extension of Aravalis), the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west and the Cardamom hills in the south constitute the outer extent of the Peninsular plateau. However, an extension of this is also seen in the northeast, in the form of Shillong and Karbi-Anglong plateau.

  • Features: 
    • It covers a total area of about 16 lakh sq km ; irregular triangular shape 
    • Height :  600-900 m 
    • Made up of a series of patland plateaus such as the Hazaribagh plateau, the Palamu plateau, the Ranchi plateau, the Malwa plateau, the Coimbatore  plateau and the Karnataka plateau, etc. 
    • General elevation of the plateau → from the west to the east  ⇒ Flow of rivers along this 
    • Important physiographic features  →  tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, series of hummocky hills and wall-like quartzite dykes
    • Western and northwestern part  ⇒ presence of black soil. 
    • Undergone recurrent phases of upliftment and submergence accompanied by crustal faulting and fractures. Eg.  Bhima fault 

These spatial variations have brought in elements of diversity in the relief of the Peninsular plateau. 

  • The northwestern part  : complex relief of ravines and gorges. Eg.  ravines of Chambal, Bhind and Morena 
  • On the basis of the prominent relief features, the Peninsular plateau can be divided into three broad groups:

(i) The Deccan Plateau

  • This is bordered by the Western Ghats (Sahyadri, Nilgiri hills Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills) in the west, Eastern Ghats (Javadi hills, the Palconda range, the Nallamala hills etc) in the east and the Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north. 

(ii) The Central Highlands

  • It is bordered by the Aravalli Mountains in the west, the Satpura Mountains in the south and the Rajmahal Hills in the east. This part extends till Jaisalmer district where it is covered with longitudinal and arc-shaped (Barkhan) sandy dunes. Chhota Nagpur plateau is the main mineral deposit of this region. Most of the tributaries of Yamuna like Chambal, Betwa, Ken etc. originate from the Vindhyachal and Kaimur ranges of this region.

(iii) The North-eastern Plateau.

  • The north eastward movement of the Indian plate caused a fault between Rajmahal hills and Meghalaya plateau, detaching the NE Plateau from the main Peninsular Block.
  • The Meghalaya plateau, divided into the Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia Hills, is rich in mineral resources like coal, iron ore, and limestone, and receives heavy rainfall from the southwest monsoon, resulting in highly eroded surfaces.

Q4 Translate the following sentences into English :           

1.क्या आप मुझे बता सकते हैं कि आपके पिता का नाम क्या है?
2.कृपया मुझे अपने साथ बाजार ले चलो, उसने अपनी माॅं से पूछाI
3.पर्यटकों के घूमने के लिए राजस्थान में कौनसी जगह अच्छी है?
4.मैनें नवीनतम प्रौद्योगिकी रूझानों के बारे में एक निबंध लिखा है।
5.क्या आपके पास हमारे लिए कोई योजना है?


1.Could you tell me what your father’s name is?

2.Please take me to the market with you, he asked his mom. 

3.Which place is nice in Rajasthan for tourists to visit?

4.I have written an essay about the latest technology trends.

5.Do you have any plans for us?

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