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SUBJECT – Geography

TOPIC -Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Types, distribution and their impact, Major Environmental Issues, Indian Geo. : Major Rivers

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Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What is the mid-oceanic ridge? 2M


A mid-oceanic ridge is composed of two chains of mountains separated by a large depression. Magma comes out due to the divergence of plates inside the oceans. As a result of the freezing of this magma, submerged ridges are formed. These ridges are generally in the middle of the ocean, hence they are also called mid-ocean ridges. This process of formation of ridges continues continuously, which is responsible for the formation of oceanic crust (ocean bed spreading).

The best example of this is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which extends from the Western Isles in the Atlantic Ocean to Bouvet Island in the south.

Q2 Describe the types of volcanoes based on the frequency of their eruptions. 5M


The classification on the basis of frequency of eruption is given below.

 (a) Active Volcano : In these types of volcanoes, eruptions occur frequently. 

  • Etna and Strombolian of Italy are examples of active volcanoes.

 (b) Dormant Volcano : In these types of volcanoes. The volcanic eruptions occurs after dormant period. 

  • Vesuvius volcano of Italy is dormant type volcano in which the volcanic eruption occurred in 1631, 1812, 1906 & 1943. 
  • Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), is a dormant stratovolcano in Tanzania.

 (c) Extinct Volcano : The volcanoes in which there have been no eruption since very long period of time and its vent is filled with water, it’s called an extinct volcano. Mt. Popa of Myanmar, Koh-i-Sultan of Iran are the example of Extinct volcanoes.

Q3 Describe the causes of climate change and elaborate on the efforts taken on the global scale.10M


NASA’s ongoing temperature analysis shows Earth’s average global temperature has risen by 1.1°C  since 1880, with most of the warming occurring post-1975 at a rate of about 0.15 to 0.20°C per decade.

  • UNFCCC defines climate change as human-induced alterations to the global atmosphere’s composition, distinct from natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. 

Causes of Climate change:

  1. Burning of Fossil Fuels: coal, oil and gas – are by far the largest contributor to global climate change, accounting for over 75 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions and nearly 90 per cent of all carbon dioxide emissions. As greenhouse gas emissions blanket the Earth, they trap the sun’s heat. This leads to global warming and climate change.
    1. Generating power: Burning fossil fuels for electricity and heat production emits carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, major greenhouse gases.
    2. Using transportation: Vehicles running on fossil fuels, especially road vehicles, emit significant carbon dioxide emissions, contributing to greenhouse gas levels.
  2. Deforestation releases stored carbon dioxide from trees, limiting nature’s ability to absorb emissions.
    1. Deforestation, together with agriculture and other land use changes, is responsible for roughly a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. (UN)
  3. Agriculture :  Agriculture, including deforestation for agriculture and grazing, methane emissions from livestock, and energy use in farming, contributes to greenhouse gas emissions.
  4. Industrialization and Urbanization
    1. Manufacturing goods: Manufacturing and industry produce emissions, mostly from burning fossil fuels to produce energy for making things like cement, iron, steel, electronics, plastics, clothes, and other goods. 
    2. Powering buildings: emitting greenhouse gases from heating, cooling, and electricity consumption.
    3. Consumerism:  the richest 1 per cent of the global population combined account for more greenhouse gas emissions than the poorest 50 per cent (UN)
  5. Land Use Changes: Converting land for urban development or agriculture 
  6. Natural – Sunspot and solar cycles, Volcanic eruptions etc.

Some key Global  initiatives include:

  • International Agreements: UNFCCC was established in 1992 to address climate change on a global scale. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2015) are key international agreements aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and limiting global warming.
    • Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, nations collectively agreed to keep warming “well under 2.0 °C (3.6 °F)” through mitigation efforts.
    • COP 28 (2023) : The Global Stocktake (periodic review mechanism) proposes eight steps  → It calls for tripling renewable energy capacity globally and doubling the global average annual rate of energy efficiency improvements by 2030.
    • UN Call for Net-Zero Emissions: by the year 2050.
    • NDC Targets : India’s updated NDC targets include reducing emissions intensity of GDP by 45% by 2030 from 2005 levels and achieving 50% cumulative electric power capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030.
  • Renewable Energy Transition: Many countries are investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydropower to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions.
    •  International Solar Alliance (ISA) → One Sun, One World, One Grid
  • Afforestation and Reforestation:.
    • REDD+ : Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism developed by Parties of the UNFCCC. It creates financial value for the carbon stored in forests to offer incentives for the developing nations to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths
  • Technological Innovation: Advances in technology, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient appliances, and carbon capture and storage, play a crucial role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
    • Geological carbon sequestration: in deep porous rocks or saline aquifers.
  • Climate Resilience and Adaptation:  building resilient infrastructure, improving water management systems, and implementing early warning systems for extreme weather events.
    • Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) by india 
  • Environmentally Friendly Practices :  Promotion of Public Transport, Electric Vehicles (EVs), Sustainable Diet; Reduce, Reuse, Repair, and Recycle
  • Shift in Habits and Attitudes: Lifestyle for the Environment (LiFE) Movement was introduced by India during COP26 
    •  The prevalent “use-and-dispose” economy governed by mindless and destructive consumption will be replaced by a circular economy, defined by conscious and deliberate consumption.

In the global fight against climate change, prioritizing climate justice, embracing CBDR principles, and promoting green growth are essential.

Q.4 Translate the following sentences into English :            [RAS Mains 2018]

1.हल्दी में बहुत से औषधीय गुण होते हैं ।
2.अब समय आ गया है कि अज्ञानता और निरक्षरता को जड़ से उखाड़ दें ।
3.क्‍या सितार बजाने में आपको आनन्द आता है ?
4.भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप अनेक सभ्यताओं व संस्कृतियों का जनक है ।
5.राजा ने कैदी को अपने राज्य से निष्कासित कर दिया ।


1.Turmeric has many medicinal properties.

2.Now is the time to uproot ignorance and illiteracy.

3.Do you enjoy playing the sitar?

4.The Indian subcontinent is the progenitor of many civilizations and cultures.

5.The king expelled the prisoner from his kingdom.

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