22 April 2024 RAS Mains Answer Writing

Ras mains answer writing practice

Click here to download the schedule – English Medium | Hindi Medium

Subject – Sociology

Topic -Caste and Class in Indian Society: Nature, Origin, Functions, and Challenges. Processes of Change: Sanskritization, Westernization, Secularization and Globalization

For Hindi medium – Click here

Sociology PYQs – Click Here

Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What is the Racial Theory related to the origin of Caste system in India?


“Caste is a product of race that came to India along with Aryans”- Herbert Risley

Theory: The caste system originated from racial differences, with Aryans (Indo-Aryans) imposing their supremacy over the Dravidians, the indigenous people of India.According to this theory, Aryans defeated the natives and developed the caste system to protect the supremacy of their blood, which later changed into a caste system. Risley believed that the higher castes originated from Indo-Aryans while the lower castes originated from non-Aryan races.

Criticism: Critics argue that the racial theory oversimplifies the complexity of the caste system and ignores other significant factors like occupation and social roles.Other supporters: Ghurye(Book- Caste and Race in India) partially supported this theory; Mazumdar(Book-Races and Culture in India)

Q2 Discuss the impact of secularisation on Indian society.


Impact of secularization on Indian society

  1. Social thought was re-explained 
  2. Concept of secularization changed the notion of purity and impurity.
  3. Secularization broadened the narrow mentality of individuals
  4. Focus of public mind was laid on development of self
  5. Caste discrimination enfeebled as the expectations to achieve wealth, power and authority strengthened
  6. There was a change in the belief from supernatural authority to universality.
  7.  Sentiments of devotion and faith did not disappear but now path to God was through humans
  8. Consciousness developed, people started donating to hospitals, educational institutions, social service organizations etc
  9. The traditional system of accepting the predominant cast class as Panch, in the rural society, tarnished
  10. Politicization of rural communities began. 

“Social Change in Modern India” – Book by M.N. Srinivas

Q3 Compare and contrast the concepts of caste and class in understanding social inequality.


MEANINGSegmental division of society based on heredity and restrictions imposed on marriage, occupation and lifestyle.Open system of stratification whose basis may be social , economic, educational, cultural status.
MEMBERSHIPInnate and ascribed.Has to be acquired
OCCUPATIONFixed. No mobility.Not fixed
NORMSExpected to follow prescribed rituals and normsNo such compulsion
TYPEClosed and static system.Dynamic and open system.
MARRIAGEEndogamousCan marry outside one’s class.
RELIGIONThe caste system has religious connotations.The class system is not based on any religion.
DISTINCTIONBased on inferiority-superiority of human beings.Based on inferiority – superiority of social status.
DEMOCRACYDoes not promote democracy.Democracy.Does not necessarily act as a hindrance to democracy.
INEQUALITYCumulative Inequality. Wider social gap.Dispersed Inequality. Social gap is not so wide.

Q.4 विद्युत विभाग जयपुर की ओर से विद्युत कटौती के संबंध में जारी अधिसूचना का एक प्रारूप तैयार कीजिए [RAS Mains 2016, Special]


error: Content is protected !!