16 May RAS Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – Technology

Topic – Contribution of Indian Scientists in Science and Technology, Development of science and technology in Rajasthan, Government policies related to Science and Technology

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Q1 Mention the contribution of the following Indian Scientists – 2M
2.MS Swaminathan


C. V. Raman was an Indian physicist known for his work in the field of light scattering. He was the first person from Asia to be awarded a Nobel prize in any field of science.
Main works:
1. Discovered Raman Effect in 1928
2. Theory of transverse vibration of bowed string instruments
2. show
that the blue colour of the sea is independent of the skylight and is due to molecular diffraction.

MS Swaminathan:
M.S. Swaminathan, often referred to as the “Father of the Green Revolution in India,” has made significant contributions to agricultural science, food security, and sustainable development. Recently he was conferred Bharat Ratna. 
Main works:
Food security
Minimum Support Price for crops at least 50% higher than the weighted average cost of production.

Q2 Discuss the measures taken by the Government of Rajasthan to promote science and technology in the state.5M

The Department of Science and Technology(1983) caters to the need of science and technology requirements of the state and takes necessary measures to promote utilization of science and technology to enhance socio economic status of the state.

Steps taken by DST, Rajasthan: 
State Policy on Intellectual Property Rights 2021-2026
 Rajasthan Biotechnology Policy 2015
Entrepreneurship Development Division

In schools and colleges:
Scientific exhibition under Rashtriya Avishkar Yojna
support of Rs 10,000 to science clubs in 5,000 government schools
Bootcamp and School Startup Program

Policies and Schemes :
Rajasthan Startup policy 2022
iStart Scheme
KARYA Scheme

Digital Age Skills :
Rajasthan Institute of Advance Learning(RIAL), Rajiv Gandhi Centre of Advanced Learning(RCAT), Rajiv Gandhi Fintech Digital Institute (Jodhpur), APJ Abdul Kalam Institute of Biotechnology in Jaipur(Budget 2023)

Q3 What are the significant legislative actions recently implemented to secure India’s digital future ? 10M


In recent years, digitalization has increased at a rapid pace in india with over 850 million internet users. However, with the growing digital footprint comes a host of challenges related to cybersecurity, data privacy, and technological innovation.

In response to these challenges, the Indian government has undertaken the following significant legislative actions

  1. Digital Personal Data Protection Act 2023 
    1. Personal data may be processed only for a lawful purpose upon consent of an individual. 
    2. Data fiduciaries will be obligated to maintain the accuracy of data, keep data secure, and delete data once its purpose has been met.
    3. grants certain rights to individuals including the right to obtain information, seek correction and erasure, and grievance redressal.
    4. Proposed shift from whitelisting to blacklisting mechanism to ease cross-border data flows.
    5. central government will establish the Data Protection Board of India to adjudicate on non-compliance 
    6. Penalties:Rs 250 crore for failure to prevent data breaches.
    7. Impact on Social Media Companies: Significant Data Fiduciaries required to develop user verification mechanisms. Expected to reduce anonymity, trolling, fake news, and cyberbullying
  2. Proposed Digital India Act 2023 (DIA) represents a significant step towards establishing a future-ready legal framework for the country’s burgeoning digital ecosystem.
    1. The DIA, poised to replace the two-decade-old Information Technology Act of 2000 (IT Act)
    2. Online Safety and Trust: Emphasis on safeguarding citizens’ rights in the digital realm.
    3. Responsible Utilization of Technologies:.
      1. Promotion of Innovation with Regulation:  promotes ethical AI practices, data privacy in blockchain applications, and mechanisms for accountability in the use of these technologies.
      2. Positioning India as a responsible player in the global technology landscape.
    4. Upholding Open Internet: Balance between accessibility and necessary regulations to maintain order and protect users. Mandates stringent Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements for wearable devices.
    5. Review of Online Accountability Standards: Contemplates a review of the “safe harbour” principle for online platforms.
  3. The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita includes specific provisions on organized crime, which encompass cybercrime under Section 111(1) BNS 2023
  4. Data as Public Good⇒ formation of a National Data Governance Policy (NGDP) in order to provide academia and start-ups with anonymised data.  policy aimed to increase the efficacy of data-driven governance as well as promote an innovative ecosystem of data science, analytics and AI to reach its full potential.
  5. Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021
  6. Telecommunication Act 2023 : it empowers the government to set conformity standards for various aspects, including cyber security and data encryption. 

In conclusion, the recent legislative actions undertaken to secure India’s digital future mark significant strides towards addressing the evolving challenges of cybersecurity and data protection.

Q4.  Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : [RAS Mains 2018]

Conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important thing is that you must talk about the other fellow’s hobby rather than your own. Therein lies the secret of your popularity. Talk to your friends about things that interest them and you will make your reputation for good fellowship, charming wit and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people more than your interest in their interest. 

                           It is as important to know what subject to avoid as what subjects to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down as a wet blanket or a bore, be careful to avoid unpleasant topics. Avoid talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do so. People are interested in their problems, not in yours. Sickness and death bore everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such talk is a doctor, but he gets paid for it. To be a good conversationalist, you must know not only what to say but how to say it. Be civil and modest. Don’t ever emphasize your own happiness. Be mentally quick and witty, but don’t hurt others with your wit. Finally, try to avoid mannerisms in your conversation. Don’t bite your lips, or click your tongue, or roll your eyes, or use your hands excessively as you speak. Such gestures detract from the conversation

Questions :
What subjects of conversation make one popular ?
What topics must one avoid in a good conversation ?
What are the two things a good conversationalist must know ?
How should a good conversationalist treat others ?
Find the word/words in the passage that have the same meaning as the following :
A person who discourages enjoyment 

  1.  What subjects of conversation make one popular ?

     Ans: The secret of popularity lies in talking about people’s hobbies rather than your own and  taking interest in those subjects which your listeners find interesting .

  1. What topics must one avoid in a good conversation ? 

     Ans:  One should avoid unpleasant topics such as sickness and death that bore everybody . Talking about oneself should be avoided as  people are interested in their own problems, not in that of others’.

  1. What are the two things a good conversationalist must know ? 

     Ans: What to say and how to say are the two things that a good conversationalist must know.

  1. How should a good conversationalist treat others ?

     Ans:  A good conversationalist should treat others with modesty and in a civilised manner. He should not emphasize his own happiness and should be careful about his ‘wit’ so that people do not get hurt unnecessarily. 

  1. Find the word/words in the passage that have the same meaning as the following :
    A person who discourages enjoyment 

Ans : Wet blanket

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