14 May RAS Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – Technology

Topic – Recent developments in information and communication technology – Artificial Intelligence, Big data, Cloud computing, Internet of things, Crypto currency, OTT platforms and Social media and their impacts; IT industry in India, Digital India initiatives

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Click on the question to see the model answer. Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What is Big Data ? 2M

Answer:

According to the Ministry of electronics and information technology (MeITY), Big Data is data whose scale, diversity, and complexity require new architecture, techniques, algorithms, and analytics to manage it and extract value and hidden knowledge from it. In other words, big data is characterised by volume, variety (structured and unstructured data) velocity (high rate of changing) and veracity (uncertainty and incompleteness).

6Vs of Big data: Volume, Variety, Veracity, Velocity, Value, Variability

Q2 What regulatory challenges arise with the rise of OTT platforms, and how are they being addressed? 5M

Answer:

IT Rules 2021 describes OTT platforms as online curated content platforms (OCCPs). Online curated content is audio-visual content such as films, web-series, podcasts, etc., made available to viewers on demand, including but not limited to subscription by OTT platforms.

  • Popular video-on-demand services in India include Disney+ Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Sony LIV, etc.

Rise of OTT platforms : 

Ormax Report : India has 481 million OTT users (i.e. penetration of 34%.) and 102 million paid subscriptions. 

Regulatory challenges:

  1. Rapid Growth : User penetration is projected to be 45.8% in 2024 and is expected to increase to 54.5% by 2029. 
  2. Market dominance and unfair competition : Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, and Disney+ Hotstar are the top three OTT players in India, with around 60-70% market share.
  3. Safeguarding user data and ensuring compliance with data protection regulations
  4. ‘Extended Release’ by OTTs shows disparity with the film industry (regulated by CBFC).
  5. Protection of Vulnerable Sections: The Supreme Court in 2018 and the Ad hoc committee of the Rajya Sabha in 2020 highlighted the alarming issue of child pornography on digital media.
  6. Demands from CIvil society : to monitor sexually explicit and any other content that promoted “false narratives”, “love jihad” and inaccurately depicted India’s history.

Addressing the regulatory challenges: 

  • 2020 : Govt brought OTT platforms under ambit of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
    • Ministry of I&B takes Action against Obscene Content on OTT Platforms : 18 OTT Platforms Blocked recently 
  • Recently, TDSAT ruled that OTTs fall outside the jurisdiction of TRAI and are governed by the Information Technology Rules, 2021, under MeitY.
    • Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 :  establish a soft-touch self-regulatory architecture with a Code of Ethics and three-tier grievance redressal mechanism for OTT platforms.

Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB) released the draft Broadcasting Services (Regulation) Bill, 2023 : in favor of unified regulation for “broadcasting, OTT, Digital Media, DTH, IPTV”

Q3 How does social media’s role in democratizing information intersect with its challenges to internal security and social cohesion? 10M

Answer:

Social media refers to online platforms and technologies that enable users to create, share, and exchange information, ideas, and content in virtual communities and networks.  Examples : Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, and Snapchat.

Role in democratizing information: 

  • Counters the hegemony of traditional media by providing a platform for individuals to share their thoughts, ideas, and opinions freely. 
  • Social media platforms are more accessible, inclusive and facilitate communication among diverse groups of people.
  • empowered individuals to participate in public discourse, express dissenting views, and hold governments and institutions accountable. Eg role of social media during Arab Spring
  • Provides a platform for marginalised communities to express their perspectives, concerns, and experiences : Me too movement
  • Encouragement of digital literacy, including among older generations.
  • Facilitation of direct communication channels, such as Twitter, utilized by government officials, bureaucrats

However, this democratization of information also poses challenges to internal security and social cohesion.

In summary, while social media has democratized information and empowered individuals, its unchecked proliferation and misuse pose significant challenges to internal security and social cohesion. Addressing these challenges requires a multi-faceted approach that involves enhancing digital literacy, regulating social media platforms, and promoting responsible online behavior.

Q4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:- (each question carries 2 marks)

Too many parents these days can’t say no. As a result, they find themselves raising ‘children’ who respond greedily to the advertisements aimed right at them. Even getting what they want doesn’t satisfy some kids; they only want more. Now, a growing number of psychologists, educators and parents think it’s time to stop the madness and start teaching kids about what’s really important : values like hard work, contentment, honesty and compassion. The struggle to set limits has never been tougher—and the stakes have never been higher. One recent study of adults who were overindulged as children, paints a discouraging picture of their future : when given too much too soon, they grow up to be adults who have difficulty coping with life’s disappointments. They also have a distorted sense of entitlement that gets in the way of success in the workplace and in relationships.
What parents need to find is a balance between the advantages of an affluent society and the critical life lessons that come from waiting, saving and working hard to achieve goals. That search for balance has to start early. Children need limits on their behaviour because they feel better and more secure when they live within a secured structure.
Elder child learns self-control by watching how others, especially parents act. Learning how to overcome challenges is essential to becoming a successful adult. Only a few parents ask kids to do chores. Other parents think their kids are already overburdened by social and academic pressures. Every individual can be of service to others, and life has meaning beyond one’s own immediate happiness. That means parents eager to teach values have to take a long, hard look at their own conduct.
Questions:
(a) What values do parents and teachers want children to learn?
(b) What are the results of giving the children too much too soon?
(c) What is the balance which the parents need to have in today’s world?
(d) What is the necessity to set limits for children?
(e) Find words in the passage similar in meaning as ‘a feeling of satisfaction’

Answer:

(a) What values do parents and teachers want children to learn?

Ans.   Parents and teachers want to inculcate the values of life like honesty, hard work and contentment among children.

(b) What are the results of giving the children too much too soon?

Ans.  When children are given too much too soon, they grow up to be adults who have difficulty in coping with the disappointments of life. Such children may develop a distorted sense of entitlement that comes in the way of success in the workplace and relationships.

(c) What is the balance which the parents need to have in today’s world?

Ans.  Parents need to find a balance between the advantages of an affluent society and the critical lessons of life that come from waiting, saving and working hard to achieve goals in today’s world.

(d) What is the necessity to set limits for children?

 Ans. Children need limits on their behaviours because they feel better and more secure when they live within a secured structure.

(e) Find words in the passage similar in meaning as ‘a feeling of satisfaction’ – 

Ans. contentment

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