12 April 2024 RAS Mains Answer Writing

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Subject – Indian History

Topic – American War of Independence, French Revolution (1789 A.D.) and Industrial Revolution

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Indian History PYQs – Click Here

Click on the question to see the model answer (12 April 2024). Submit your answers below and complete the 90-day challenge for RAS Mains answer writing

Q1 What were the major technological advancements in the textile sector during the Industrial Revolution?(2M)

The Industrial Revolution (mid 18th century)  brought about significant technological advancements in the textile sector. Some major advancements include:

  1. Flying Shuttle (1733) : by british weaver John Kay → Speedy weaving 
  2. Spinning Jenny (1764): Invented by James Hargreaves → allowed for simultaneous spinning of multiple threads, significantly boosting productivity.
  3. Water Frame (1769): Developed by Richard Arkwright → a water-powered spinning machine that produced finer and stronger yarn
  4. Power Loom (1785): Innovated by Edmund Cartwright →  automated the weaving process, driven by a steam engine, enhancing efficiency in fabric production.
  5. Cotton Gin (1793): The invention of Eli Whitney, the Cotton Gin mechanized the separation of cotton fibers from seeds, revolutionizing cotton processing.
  6. Steam Engine: Although not exclusive to textiles, the steam engine,, provided a more efficient power source for textile machinery and fueled industrial expansion.
  7. Factory System: integrating machines and labor under one roof, transformed production methods.
  8. Mechanical Combing and Carding Machines
  9. Rotary Printing Press (1785): Invented by Robert Barclay → facilitated mass production of printed fabrics.

These innovations collectively reshaped the textile industry, marking a shift from manual craftsmanship to mechanized, large-scale production methods.

Trick to Remember 👍First Second floor par WPC ki Jali badi khas hai  (FS WPC → KHACE)F → K (Flying shuttle – KAY)S → H (Spinny Jenny – HERGREAVES)W → A (Water frame -> Arkwright)P→ C (Power loom – Cartwright)C → E (Cotton gin – Eli Whitney)

Q2 Examine the role played by Enlightenment thinkers in the French Revolution.(5M)

Enlightenment thinkers played a vital role in inspiring the values and principles that underpinned the French Revolution.
Montesquieu (1689–1755):
Montesquieu’s “The Spirit of the Laws” proposed the separation of powers as a safeguard against tyranny. → proposed the division of political power into three branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial ⇒ advocated for a balanced government with checks and balances
Exposed privilege based social system in france
Found that luxurious life of church is responsible for the corruption
Voltaire (1694–1778):
championed freedom of speech and expression, religious tolerance, and the separation of church and state.
His writings, including “Candide,” critiqued oppressive institutions and advocated for individual liberties.
In his “Philosophical Dictionary” (1764) “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Opposed corrupt monarchy and oppressive church
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778):
Contribution: Rousseau’s “The Social Contract” emphasized the legitimacy of government through the general will. His ideas influenced democratic principles and concepts of popular sovereignty.
Quote: “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” → Social Inequality
The revolutionary cry of “Liberté, égalité, fraternité” (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) reflects Rousseau’s ideals.
Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794):
Robespierre believed that civic virtue, a commitment to the common good, was essential for a successful republic and the protection of individual rights.
Impact of American revolution:
General Laffayate : Fought in american revolution → Inspired from democratic ideas

Thus, the influence of Enlightenment thinkers, combined with other historical developments, prompted the articulation of individual rights in the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” (1789).

Q3  Explain the factors responsible for the emergence of the American War of Independence.(10M)

Colonial North America underwent a significant ideological and political shift between 1775 and 1783, culminating in independence from Britain and the establishment of the USA, known as the American War of Independence. The factors contributing to this emergence are as follows:

  1. Economic factors: British policies such as the Navigation Acts (1651), which mandated the use of British ships only, and acts imposing heavy import duties (1673) stifled American industry, along with restrictions on fur hats and copper smelting factories (1732).
  2. Political factors: Policies such as the Sugar Act (1764), Stamp Act, Currency Act (1765), and Townshend Acts(1767) (encompassing paper, paint, coin, glass, and tea), fueled discontent among the American colonies.
  3. Mercantile Capitalism: British policies under mercantile capitalism aimed to enrich the mother country by tightly controlling colonial trade(i.e.,Navigation Act-1751, Iron Act, Hat Act).
  4. Home Rule vs. Imperialism: Appointment of Governor, Military cheif etc by british 
  5. Nature of American colonies: With their British origin and a high level of political consciousness, the American colonies were aware of democratic values, exemplified by documents like the Virginia Magna Carta.
  6. Role of intellectuals: Figures like Thomas Paine (“Common Sense”), Benjamin Franklin (American Philosophical Society), Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams (Committee of Correspondence), James otis(“No taxation without representation”) and Patrick Henry (“Give me liberty or give me death”) ignited nationalist sentiments through their intellectual contributions.
  7. Lack of affinity for England: Many colonists were either religiously persecuted or criminals deported to the colonies, leading to a lack of emotional attachment to England.
  8. Influence of Enlightenment ideas: which championed concepts such as individual liberty, reason, and natural rights, fostering a spirit of questioning authority and advocating for self-governance among the American colonists.
  9. Policies adopted by King George III: His shortsighted pursuit of autocratic rule further alienated the colonies.
  10. Immediate triggers: Events such as the Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) and the Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773) served as catalysts for resistance

The American War of Independence, driven by economic struggles and Enlightenment values, serves as the model for revolutions worldwide, earning its reputation as the “Mother of All Revolutions” and inspiring freedom movements across the globe.

Q4  निम्नांकित पंक्ति का भाव विस्तार कीजिए: (शब्द सीमा: लगभग 100 शब्द)
          
महत्वाकांक्षा का मोती निष्ठुरता की सीपी में पलता है। 

छायायादी कवि जयशंकर प्रसाद का यह कथन उच्च आकांक्षाओं की प्राप्ति हेतु किए जाने वाले संघर्ष को प्रतिबिंबित करता है। जो व्यक्ति महत्त्वाकांक्षी होगा, अपने जीवन में बेहतर करने की चाह रखेगा, उसको अपने प्रति निर्मम होना ही पड़ेगा। सभ्यता के शुरुआती दौर से लेकर आज तक न जाने कितने रूप सामने आए है, समय ने न जाने कितनी करवटें ली है, परंतु मानव विकास की यह अनवरत यात्रा, विकास तथा उत्थान की जिजीविषा, आगे बढ़ते रहने की महत्त्वाकांक्षा, तमाम प्रतिकूलताओं तथा विषमताओं के बाद भी जारी रही। संस्कृत साहित्य में भी कहा गया है-

“कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतं समाः।”

अर्थात मनुष्य को कर्म करते हुए सौ वर्ष जीने की इच्छा रखनी चाहिए। महत्त्वाकांक्षा से जीवन के महान लक्ष्यों को प्राप्त करते हुए अनेक संघर्षों का सामना करना पड़ता है। हमारे समाज में ऐसे अनेक उदाहरण देखे जा सकते हैं।

महान उदाहरण विश्व के महान वैज्ञानिक स्टीफन हॉकिंग का जीवन है, जिन्होंने व्हील चेयर पर रहते हुए संपूर्ण विश्व को ब्रह्मण्ड के रहस्य से परिचित करवाया। इसी प्रकार रूसो, जिन्होंने तमाम समस्याओं तथा संकटों का सामना करते हुए फ्रांस की क्रांति का आधार तैयार किया जो स्वतंत्रता, समानता व बंधुत्व मूल्यों पर आधारित थी, ये मूल्य विश्व के लिए एक दर्शन समान है।

महाराणा प्रताप का जीवन भी इसका बेहतरीन उदाहरण है, जिन्होंने स्वाधीनता की महत्त्वाकांक्षा के कारण निर्वासित जीवन जिया तथा आजीवन कष्टों से अपना नाता जोड़े रखा।

सार यह है कि व्यक्ति को न केवल अपने जीवन में महत्त्वाकांक्षी होनी चाहिए, अपितु अपनी महत्त्वाकांक्षाओं को मुकम्मल तस्वीर देने हेतु कठिन राहों पर चलने से भी घबराना नहीं चाहिए। अपितु उनका सामना धैर्य और सहिष्णुता से करना चाहिए।

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