6 June RAS Mains Answer Writing

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SUBJECT – Concepts, Issues and Dynamics of Public Administration and Management

TOPIC – Attitude and Values of Civil Services: Ethics, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, dedication to public service, relationship between Generalists and Specialists | Control over Administration: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial –Various Means and Limitations

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Q1 What is the significance of Non partisanship in administration? 2M

Answer:

Non-partisanship refers to the ability of a civil servant to remain neutral and unbiased in political matters.

Significance of Non-Partisanship in Administration :

  1. Ministers from any political party trust the loyalty of civil servants.
  2. Civil servants can fully support reforms introduced by political executives.
  3. Maintains public trust in the apolitical nature of civil services.
  4. High morale among civil servants due to merit-based promotion and fair service conditions.

Ensures consistency in government operations and services regardless of political changes.

Q2 What are the different means of legislative control over administration? 5M

Answer:

In India’s parliamentary system, ministers are collectively responsible to parliament. This leads to indirect legislative control over administration through ministers. Parliamentary control techniques include:

  1. Law-making: Parliament enacts, amends, or repeals laws to shape organizational policies and structure.
  2. Parliamentary Proceedings: Question Hour – MPs ask questions of three kinds, viz. Starred, unstarred and short notice ; Zero Hour –Informal discussions without prior notice, Half-an-Hour Discussion; Short Duration Discussion; Calling Attention Motion; Adjournment Motion –Draws attention to urgent matters; No Confidence Motion – Removes the ministry if it loses majority support. ⇒ Eg. issues such as the migrant crisis during Covid-19 and the rise in the cost of the Rafael aircraft were raised
  3. Budgetary System: Parliament controls government finances through budget enactment and criticism.
  4. Debate on inaugural speech of President (Art 87)/ Governor (Art 176)
  5. Audit System: CAG audits the government’s accounts on behalf of Parliament and submits an annual report detailing any improper, illegal, unwise, uneconomical, or irregular expenditures.
  6. Parliamentary Committees:
    1. Financial Committees: Public Account Committee – Examines CAG reports ; Estimates Committee: Suggests economies in public expenditure; Committee on Public Undertakings.
    2. Departmental Standing Committees: Examine ministry/department demands, bills, and reports.
    3. Other  : Committee on subordinate legislation , Committee on Government Assurances.

However, legislative control over administration is often more theoretical than practical. In reality, it’s not as effective as it should be.

Q3 Highlight the major points of controversy between generalists and specialists, and suggest measures to resolve them. 10M

Answer:

In India’s civil service, there are two main components: generalists, exemplified by IAS officers, who handle administrative functions like POSDCORB, and specialists, such as engineers and doctors, who provide expertise in specific fields. However, there has been an unending controversy between these two since British rule.

Areas of Controversy

  1. Pay and service conditions favor generalists over specialists, causing dissatisfaction among the latter.
  2. Top policymaking positions are often reserved for IAS officers, limiting opportunities for specialists.
  3. Below the Secretariat level, specialists typically occupy positions, but generalists are often appointed as heads of executive departments, such as Director of Agriculture, Chief Conservator of Forests, Director of Health, etc.
  4. Regional key posts like Divisional Commissioner are usually occupied by generalists, despite the presence of specialists.
  5. At the district level, the District Collector, a ‘generalist civil servant par excellence,’ heads a number of technical departments in the district administration. Similarly, the CEO of the Zilla Parishad is a generalist and heads a team of specialists.
  6. Generalists enjoy closer ties with political leaders compared to specialists.
  7. Generalists have broader mobility across organizations, unlike specialists who are confined to their fields.
  8. Generalists have faster promotion prospects than specialists.
  9. Performance appraisal of specialists is conducted by generalist IAS officers.
  10. IAS officers often disregard the advice and proposals of specialists, viewing them as subordinates.

The controversy between generalists and specialists in the Indian administrative system is detrimental to administration and negatively affects efficiency. The key recommendations for resolving this dispute are as follows:

  1. Restructure the administrative system into generalist and specialist departments.
  2. Establish new All India Services in emerging technical fields like medicine, education, and agriculture, offering them the same status and benefits as IAS
  3. Joint training for generalists and specialists to understand each other’s roles and challenges.
  4. Introduce changes in the hierarchical structure of positions :Consideration could be given to Separate Grade (Germany, Sweden), Parallel Grade, Joint Grade, Unified Grade.
  5. Administrative Reforms Commission recommended
    1. Restructuring services into Functional and Non-Functional categories.
    2. Restructure the role of the IAS to focus on specific functional areas like land revenue administration and regulatory work.
    3. Dividing top-level positions into Field and Headquarters categories. Field roles should be for technically qualified individuals, while Headquarters roles should be filled jointly by generalists and specialists as needed.
    4. Implement a rational pay structure reflecting job responsibilities.
    5. Discontinue the practice of appointing generalist secretaries as part-time or full-time heads of public enterprises.

The Fulton Committee emphasized that the aim isn’t to replace specialists with generalists or vice versa. Instead, both generalist and specialist administration are essential, like two sides of a coin. With coordination and cooperation between them, we can achieve the goal of public welfare.

Q4 Write a paragraph on any one of the following in approximately 200 words.                  [RAS Mains 2018] 
The future of English in India   

Answer:

  The future of English in India

English is a foreign language. But it is an international language because it is spoken and written in many countries of the world. Before 1947 was the official language of the world. After the Second World War it lost its past prestige.However, still English is an important language of the world. It has its importance in Science, Industry and Politics. So people learn it. The people who want to go to foreign countries for further studies in literature or in any other subject, learn it. This language is the medium through which people of the world understand one another. Thus English has the prestige of international language. Here is a great controversy whether English should continue in free India or not. The two views give their own arguments in for and against the existence of English in India. First, English is the language of the Englishmen. It was brought into India by the British rulers. Now we are free. Our freedom is meaningless so far we have not our own language as national language. We no more want cheap clerks like the English masters wanted back then. Secondly, English is a difficult language to learn. Most of the time when the students go to learn English explanations, Essays, grammar and translation, they get frightened.Thirdly, a language is a medium to express oneself and be understood. When we have already a rich language like Hindi, why is English imposed on us ? Fourthly, a free country must have its own national language. Without its own national language no country in the world has ever progressed. We have the example of Japan before us. Fifthly, the Indian languages cannot have free development unless English is abolished. Some people support English on the following grounds: First, India is a developing country. It is necessary to change economic, social and political life of the people. For this purpose English is necessary to understand the books on different subjects. Secondly, our foreign policy is based on peaceful co-existence. Some common medium is necessary for the exchange of ideas. Hence, English is necessary as it is widely used in the world. Thirdly, the literature of English is full of scientific and technical development. We have to take its help. Fourthly, English is an international language. We conclude that both the views carry weight. But English is a foreign language. It must go sooner or later.

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